The United Nations 2030 Agenda brings a holistic and multi-sectoral view on sustainability via the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, a successful implementation of this agenda is contingent on understanding the multiple, complex interactions among SDGs, including both synergies and trade-offs, for informing planning for sustainability at the local level. Using a case study in the Goulburn-Murray region in Victoria, Australia, we prioritised global goals and targets for the local context, characterised the interactions between them, analysed the main synergies and trade-offs, and identified potential policy solutions to achieve local sustainability. We identified the five highest priority SDGs for the region as clean water and sanitation (SDG 6), agricultural activities (SDG 2), economic growth (SDG 8), climate action (SDG 13), and life on land (SDG 15). Across these five priority SDGs and their 45 targets, we found 307 potential interactions, of which 126 (41%) were synergistic, 19 (6%) were trade-offs, and 162 (53%) were benign. We highlight the most salient trade-offs, particularly how unsustainable agricultural practices could negatively affect water resources, the environment, and sustainable economic growth. Also, critical ongoing uncertainties like climate change, local policies on environmental water recovery, international markets, and emerging new technologies could pose risks for the future of agriculture and the economy. Our results provide important insights for local and regional sustainability policy and planning across multiple sectors. Our methodology is also broadly applicable for prioritising SDGs and assessing their interactions at local scales, thereby supporting evidence-based policy-making for the SDGs.