Shahbaz Chaudhry

and 3 more

We show the global dynamics of spatial cross-correlation of Pc2 wave activity can track the evolution of the 2015 St. Patrick’s Day geomagnetic storm for an 8 hour time window around onset. The global spatially coherent response is tracked by forming a dynamical network from 1 second data using the full set of 100+ ground-based magnetometer stations collated by SuperMAG and Intermagnet. The pattern of spatial coherence is then captured by a few network parameters which in turn track the evolution of the storm. At onset IMF B_z>0 and Pc2 power increases, we find a global response with stations being correlated over both local and global distances. Following onset, whilst B_z>0, the network response is confined to the day-side. When IMF B_z<0, there is a strong local response at high latitudes, consistent with the onset of polar cap convection driven by day-side reconnection. The spatially coherent response as revealed by the network grows and is maximal when both SME and SMR peak, consistent with an active electrojet and ring-current. Throughout the storm there is a coherent response both in stations located along lines of constant geomagnetic longitude, between hemispheres, and across magnetic local time. The network does not simply track the average Pc2 wave power, however is characterized by network parameters which track the evolution of the storm. This is a first study to parameterize global Pc2 wave correlation and offers the possibility of statistical studies across multiple events to detailed comparison with, and validation of, space weather models.

Tamas Bozoki

and 21 more

The importance of lightning has long been recognized from the point of view of climate-related phenomena. However, the detailed investigation of lightning on global scales is currently hindered by the incomplete and spatially uneven detection efficiency of ground-based global lightning detection networks and by the restricted spatio-temporal coverage of satellite observations. We are developing different methods for investigating global lightning activity based on Schumann resonance (SR) measurements. SRs are global electromagnetic resonances of the Earth-ionosphere cavity maintained by the vertical component of lightning. Since charge separation in thunderstorms is gravity-driven, charge is typically separated vertically in thunderclouds, so every lightning flash contributes to the measured SR field. This circumstance makes SR measurements very suitable for climate-related investigations. In this study, 19 days of global lightning activity in January 2019 are analyzed based on SR intensity records from 18 SR stations and the results are compared with independent lightning observations provided by ground-based (WWLLN, GLD360 and ENTLN) and satellite-based (GLM, LIS/OTD) global lightning detection. Daily average SR intensity records from different stations exhibit strong similarity in the investigated time interval. The inferred intensity of global lightning activity varies by a factor of 2-3 on the time scale of 3-5 days which we attribute to continental-scale temperature changes related to cold air outbreaks from polar regions. While our results demonstrate that the SR phenomenon is a powerful tool to investigate global lightning, it is also clear that currently available technology limits the detailed quantitative evaluation of lightning activity on continental scales.