Waves in bi-ion plasmas are affected by asymmetry. The kinetic theory of the Maxwellian and Lorentzian/Kappa-distributed bi-ion plasma is ameliorated to incorporate the transfer of orbital angular momentum from the helical electric field to the plasma modes. By operating the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) function, the perturbed distribution function and helical electric field are decomposed into characteristic axial and azimuthal components. In symmetric bi-ion plasmas, the conventional ion modes/waves are only present if both ions have similar masses and the concentration of the electrons is negligible. An imbalance of the symmetry is considered by the contamination of a small fraction of the heavy immobile ions, which urges the negative ions to become heavier than the positive ions in the bi-ion plasma system. The distinct masses of the positive and negative ions provoke mass-asymmetry in the Kappa-distributed bi-ion plasmas. The signature of the unique acoustic-laden twisted modes in non-Maxwellian asymmetric bi-ion plasma is perceived by the temperature of the lighter positive ions and the dynamics of the heavier negative ion. The deliberated results of Landau damping are displayed for distinct values of the azimuthal wave-number and spectral index, temperature-variation and mass-asymmetry.
Nearly isotropic comets with very long orbital period are supposed to come from the Oort Cloud. Recent observational and theoretical studies have greatly revealed the dynamical nature of this cloud and its evolutionary history. However, many issues are yet to be known. Our goal is to understand current structure of this cloud as well as its dynamical origin. For estimating the current structure of the Oort Cloud, key information lies in the original orbit of the Oort Cloud new comets (OCNCs) that are defined at a distance where these objects do not receive gravitational perturbation from major planets (such as at rg = 250 au from the Sun before comets enter into the planetary region). There have been several attempts to obtain OCNC’s original orbits, but it never has been an easy task. This requires numerical orbit propagation of the observed comets with high accuracy including perturbation from major disturbing bodies. In addition, non-gravitational forces often play significant roles here. First and foremost, the orbit determination of OCNC includes substantially large uncertainty because of limited number of observational arcs and very large eccentricity of the comets (~1). Here we show our preliminary result of comparison of various catalogues of OCNCs’ original orbital elements at rg = 250 au: So-called the Warsaw catalogues by Krolikowska, the ephemeris given by MPC (Minor Planet Center), that given by Horizons/JPL, and others calculated by a few individuals (Marsden, Kinoshita, and Nakano). The resulting orbits that these catalogues yield are overall similar, but sometimes they are starkly different by reasons yet to be known. Through a series of plots with a help of our own orbit propagation using numerical and analytic methods, we give considerations on which catalogue yields the information that is the most significant (or the most fundamental) for understanding structure, origin, and evolution of the Oort Cloud.
Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are short flashes of high energy photons, produced by thunderstorms. When interacting with the atmosphere, they produce relativistic electrons and positrons, and a part gets bounded to geomagnetic field lines and travels large distances in space. This phenomenon is called a Terrestrial Electron Beam (TEB). The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) mounted on-board the International Space Station detected a new TEB event on March 24, 2019, originating from the tropical cyclone Johanina. Using ASIM’s low energy detector, the TEB energy spectrum is resolved down to 50 keV. We provide a method to constrain the TGF source spectrum based on the detected TEB spectrum. Applied to this event, it shows that only fully developed RREA spectra are compatible with the observation. More specifically, assuming a TGF spectrum ∝ 1/E exp(-E/ε), the compatible models have ε ≥ 6.5 MeV (E is the photon energy and ε is the cut-off energy). We could not exclude models with ε of 8 and 10 MeV.
Solar transients impinging on Earth’s magnetosphere often present a larger velocity than the surrounding solar wind, leading to a different response of the bow shock-magnetosheath system. As such, we intend to provide a systematic study of the global effects of different solar wind Mach numbers in a pure quasi-perpendicular configuration with a realistic three-dimensional terrestrial-like curved bow shock. Simulations have been performed with the hybrid code LatHyS, which is based on the widely used CAM-CL scheme. In particular, we have studied the interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere of a solar wind at different Alfvénic Mach numbers and low-beta (less than unity, ratio between the thermal to the magnetic pressures). One of most noteworthy outcome is the generation of an intense rippling phenomenon propagating along the bow shock surface as the incoming Mach number increases. A similar rippling has been observed in-situ with satellites, as well as studied with computer simulations. However, the latter have mainly addressed by adopting ad-hoc planar-shock initial configurations, which still leaves poor knowledge of the possible effects on a global three-dimensional curved interaction. Our analysis then is expected to provide further insights into both the macroscopic and kinetic effects of different incoming solar wind conditions on the overall planetary bow-shock and magnetosheath structure.
We analyzed correlations between solar, interplanetary-medium parameters, and geomagnetic-activity proxies in 27-day averages (a Bartels rotation) for the 2009 – 2016 time interval. We considered two new proxies: I) Bzs GSM (Geocentric Solar Magnetic), calculated as the daily percentage of the IMF southward component along the GSM z-axis and then averaged every 27 days; ii) four magnetospheric indices (T-indices), calculated from the local north-south (X) contributions of the magnetosphere’s cross-tail (TAIL), the symmetric ring current (SRC), the partial ring current (PRC), and the Birkeland current (FAC), derived from the Tsyganenko and Sitnov (J. Geophys. Res. 110, A03208, 2005: TS05) semi-empirical magnetospheric model. Our results suggest, among the parameters tested here, solar facular areas, interplanetary-magnetic field intensity and new proxies derived here could be taken into account in an empirical model, with a 27-day resolution, to explain geomagnetic activity felt on the Earth’s surface in terms of solar surface features and the IMF condition. We further retrieve a clear annual oscillation in series of 27-day-mean values of toward/away asymmetries of geomagnetic-activity indices, which can be interpreted in the light of the Russell–McPherron hypothesis for the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity (Russell, C.T., and R. L. McPherron (1973), J. Geophys. Res., 78, 92 – 108).
Dawn storms are among the brightest events in the Jovian aurorae. Up to now, they had only been observed from Earth-based observatories, only showing the Sun-facing side of the planet. Here we show for the first time global views of the phenomenon, from its initiation to its end and from the nightside of the aurora onto the dayside. Based on Juno's first 20 orbits, some patterns now emerge. Small short-lived spots are often seen for a couple of hours before the main emission starts to brighten and evolve from a straight arc to a more irregular one in the midnight sector. As the whole feature rotates dawn-ward, the arc then separates into two arcs with a central initially void region that is progressively filled with emissions. A gap in longitude then often forms before the whole feature dims. Finally, it transforms into an equatorward-moving patch of auroral emissions associated with plasma injection signatures. Some dawn storms remain weak and never fully develop. We also found cases of successive dawn storms within a few hours. Dawn storm thus share many fundamental features with the auroral signatures of the substorms at Earth. These findings demonstrate that, whatever their sources, mass and energy do not always circulate smoothly in planetary magnetospheres. Instead they often accumulate until the magnetospheres reconfigure and generate substorm-like responses in the planetary aurorae, although the temporal and spatial scales are different for different planets.
Both in situ measurements and numerical simulations show that the charge exchange collisions between energetic ring current ions (>10keV) and cold ambient neutral atoms of the upper atmosphere and exosphere (<1eV) can be a major loss process of the ring current ions. Owing to the high volume of energetic ion source injected from the ion plasma sheet during storm time under strong convection strength, there can be a significant rate of occurrence of charge exchange collision in the inner magnetosphere, therefore contributing a significant amount of inner magnetospheric cold proton populations. Due to the different charge exchange cross sections among different reactions, cold protons are generated at different rates from different energetic ion species. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative assessments on the production and evolution of charge-exchange byproduct cold protons are performed via numerical simulations, showing that the production and evolution of the cold H+ populations can be primarily driven by the plasma sheet conditions combined with the magnetospheric convection, while having the potential to affect the dynamics of the plasmasphere and facilitate the early-stage local plasmaspheric refilling. Furthermore, the energetic heavy ions composition plays an important role determining the cold H+ contribution structure from the energetic ring current ions.
The PRISM Data Library (DL) is designed to optimize the display, analysis, and retrieval of multiple domains datasets. Originally created for climate data, we aggregated data from agriculture and hydrology domains, as well as non-traditional domains for the DL such as ecology, finance, power outage and space weather data. These datasets range from simple geospatial point observations, to spatially gridded data products, to high-resolution satellite measurements, to GIS representation of administrative or domain-specific geographic entities. These datasets are represented in a consistent multi-dimensional (most often spatial and temporal) framework. As a result, dimension-wise comparisons are easily enabled through selection or transformation. Gridded data can be averaged over discrete geometrical entities (e.g. Counties, Bird Conservation Regions). The DL can be used in a browser, by connecting to servers at San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC) over the internet. Data selection, processing, and analysis are performed by the SDSC DL servers, and the resulting images or data files are sent back to the client’s desktop. This model optimizes the use of internet bandwidth.
The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) on board Perseverance includes first-of-their-kind sensors measuring the incident and reflected solar flux, the downwelling atmospheric IR flux, and the upwelling IR flux emitted by the surface. We use these measurements for the first 350 sols of the Mars 2020 mission (Ls ~ 6-174 deg; in Martian Year 36) to determine the surface radiative budget on Mars, and to calculate the broadband albedo (0.3-3 μm) as a function of the illumination and viewing geometry. Together with MEDA measurements of ground temperature, we calculate the thermal inertia for homogeneous terrains without the need for numerical models. We found that: (1) the observed downwelling atmospheric IR flux is significantly lower than model predictions. This is likely caused by the strong diurnal variation in aerosol opacity measured by MEDA, which is not accounted for by numerical models. (2) The albedo presents a marked non-Lambertian behavior, with lowest values near noon and highest values corresponding to low phase angles (i.e., Sun behind the observer). (3) Thermal inertia values ranged between 180 (sand dune) and 605 (bedrock-dominated material) SI units. (4) Averages across Perseverance’ traverse of albedo and thermal inertia (spatial resolution of ~3-4 m2) are in very good agreement with collocated retrievals of thermal inertia from THEMIS (spatial resolution of 100 m per pixel) and of bolometric albedo in the 0.25-2.9 μm range from (spatial resolution of ~300 km2). The results presented here are important to validate model predictions and provide ground-truth to orbital measurements.
Due to differences in solar illumination, a geomagnetic field line may have one footpoint in a dark ionosphere while the other ionosphere is in daylight. This may happen near the terminator under solstice conditions. In this situation, a resonant wave mode may appear which has a node in the electric field in the sunlit (high conductance) ionosphere and an antinode in the dark (low conductance) ionosphere. Thus, the length of the field line is one quarter of the wavelength of the wave, in contrast with half-wave field line resonances in which both ionospheres are nodes in the electric field. These quarter waves have resonant frequencies that are roughly a factor of 2 lower than the half-wave frequency on the field line. We have simulated these resonances using a fully three-dimensional model of ULF waves in a dipolar magnetosphere. The ionospheric conductance is modeled as a function of the solar zenith angle, and so this model can describe the change in the wave resonance frequency as the ground magnetometer station varies in local time. The results show that the quarter-wave resonances can be excited by a shock-like impulse at the dayside magnetosphere and exhibit many of the properties of the observed waves. In particular, the simulations support the notion that a conductance ratio between day and night footpoints of the field line must be greater than about 5 for the quarter waves to exist.
Martian dust, which likely formed by non-aqueous chemical weathering [Huguenin, 1976] following broad-based support from recent Mars mission data, is susceptible to rapid diagenesis when exposed to macro-seepage from the sub-permafrost aqueous aquifer system on Mars . The modeled silicate components of the dust, derived from the non-aqueous weathering of primarily olivine and pyroxene, are Mg2HSiO4(OH) and Mg(HSiO3)(OH). These are M-S-H compounds, counterparts to the C-H-S compounds that form the commercial binder in concrete, forming an Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 counterpart binder on Mars upon exposure to liquid H2O macro-seepage from the aquifer below. Macro-seepage, triggered largely by geothermally heated water near impact sites, magmatic intrusions and volcanoes, is proposed to rapidly cement layers of regolith dust and fines into layers of M-S-H counterpart “concrete.” The matrix binder on Mars is predicted to be a member of the serpentine family (Mg/Si = 5), possibly having disordered Antigorite T structure. Layered sedimentary rock formations could have formed throughout geologic history up to the present time. Materials from the aquifer, transported by and introduced from the macro-seepage, including organic matter, may be contemporary rather than ancient. This contradicts the prevailing assumption that the sedimentary rocks were formed early in the planet’s history.
A sustained dipolar magnetic field between the current sheet outer edge and the magnetopause, known as a cushion region, has yet to be observed at Saturn. Whilst some signatures of reconnection occurring in the dayside magnetodisc have been identified, the presence of this large-scale structure has not been seen. Using the complete Cassini magnetometer data, the first evidence of a cushion region forming at Saturn is shown. Only five potential examples of a sustained cushion are found, revealing this phenomenon to be rare. This feature more commonly occurs at dusk compared to dawn, where it is found at Jupiter. It is suggested that due to greater heating and expansion of the field through the afternoon sector the disc is more unstable in this region. We show that magnetodisc breakdown is more likely to occur within the magnetosphere of Jupiter compared to Saturn.
10 Magnetospheric coherent structures related to the dynamics of the dayside 11 magnetopause frontier for a northward IMF configuration, are analyzed using global 3D 12 MHD simulations. The main goal is to reach a synthetic scenario on the formation of 13 3D unstable/stable structures developed in different steps from the dayside to the night 14 side. They are: (i) the transverse Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) vortexes are generated along 15 and outside the magnetopause near the dayside region, while other K-H vortexes are 16 generated along and inside the magnetopause; (ii) both rows of vortexes are shed off 17 soon from the magnetopause; (iii) these vortexes are unstable in one each row, adjust, 18 and evolve into a marginal stable Kármán vortex street; (iv) these Kármán vortexes 19 soon are reformed into stable longitudinal (stream-wise) coherent vortexes and survive 20 for long time over large distances x~-130 to 140Re in the magnetotail. All these 21 processes lead to the formation of magnetospheric coherent structures. 22 23
The role of waves in the propagation, scattering and energization of electrons in the solar wind has long been a topic of interest. Conversely, understanding the excitation of waves by energetic electrons can provide us with a diagnostic for the processes that accelerate the electrons. We will discuss two different processes: (1) the interaction of narrowband whistler-mode waves with solar wind electrons, and (2) how periodic Type III radio bursts yield clues to small-scale acceleration of energetic electrons in the solar corona. Waveform captures in the solar wind at 1 AU obtained by the STEREO revealed the existence of narrowband large amplitude whistler mode waves, propagating at highly oblique angles to the magnetic field. Similar waves are less commonly seen inside .2 AU by Parker Solar Probe. The differences provide clues for understanding electron propagation, scattering and energization. Type III radio bursts have long been used as remote probes of electron acceleration in the solar corona. The occurrence of periodic behavior in Type III bursts observed by Parker Solar Probe, Wind and STEREO when there are no observable flares provides a unique opportunity to diagnose small-scale acceleration of electrons in the corona. Periodicities of ~ 5 minutes in the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) Extreme Ultraviolet data in several areas of an active region are well correlated with the repetition rate of the Type III radio bursts. Similar periods occur in the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI )data. These results provide evidence for acceleration by wave-modulated reconnection or small-scale size waves, such as kinetic Alfven waves, even during intervals with no observable flares. The possible connections between these two phenomena will be addressed.
In-situ magnetic field measurements are critical to our understanding of a variety of space physics phenomena including field-aligned currents and plasma waves. Unfortunately, high-fidelity magnetometer measurements are often degraded by stray magnetic fields from the host spacecraft, its subsystems, and other instruments. One dominant source of magnetic interference on many missions are reaction wheels - spinning platters of varying rates used to control spacecraft attitude. This manuscript presents a novel approach to the mitigation of reaction wheel interference on magnetometer measurements aboard spacecraft where multiple magnetometer sensors are deployed. Specifically, multichannel singular spectrum analysis is employed to decompose multiple time series simultaneously. A technique for automatic component selection is proposed that classifies the decomposed signals into common geophysical signals and disparate locally generated signals enabling the robust estimation and removal of the local interference without requiring any assumptions about its characteristics or source. The utility of this proposed method is demonstrated empirically using in-situ data from the CASSIOPE/Swarm-Echo mission, and a data interval with near-constant background field was shown to have its local reaction wheel interference reduced from 1.90 nT RMS, for the uncorrected outboard sensor, to 0.21 nT RMS (an 89.0\% reduction). This technique can be generalized to arrays of more than two sensors, and should apply to additional types of magnetic interference.
Energetic electron accelerations and precipitations in the Earth’s outer radiation belt are highly associated with wave-particle interactions between whistler mode chorus waves and electrons. We perform test particle simulation to investigate the electron behaviors interacting with both parallel and obliquely propagating chorus emissions at L=4.5. We build up a database of the Green’s functions, which are treated as results of the input electrons interacting with one emission, for a large number of electrons interacting with whistler mode chorus emissions. The loss process of electron fluxes interacting with consecutive chorus emissions in the outer radiation belt are traced by applying the convolution integrals of distribution functions and the Green’s functions. Oblique chorus emissions lead to more electron precipitation than that led by parallel chorus emissions. By checking the resonance condition and resonant energy at loss cone angle, we find that electrons are hardly dropped into the loss cone directly by Landau resonance. The nonlinear scattering via cyclotron resonance is the main process that pushes energetic electrons into the loss cone. We propose a 2-step precipitation process for oblique chorus emissions that contributes to more electron loss: (1) During the first chorus emission, the nonlinear trapping of Landau resonance moves an electron near the loss cone. (2) During the second emission, the nonlinear scattering of cyclotron resonance scatters the electron into the loss cone. The combination of Landau resonance by oblique chorus emissions and cyclotron resonance results in the higher precipitation rate than the single cyclotron resonance by purely parallel chorus emissions.
The project develops innovative tools to extract and analyze the available observational and modeling data in order to enable new physics-based and machine-learning approaches for understanding and predicting solar activity and its influence on the geospace and Earth systems. The heliophysics data are abundant: several terabytes of solar and space observations are obtained every day. Finding the relevant information from numerous spacecraft and ground-based data archives and using it is paramount, and currently a difficult task. The scope of the project is to develop and evaluate data integration tools to meet common data access and discovery needs for two types of Heliophysics data: 1) long-term synoptic activity and variability, and 2) extreme geoeffective solar events caused by solar flares and eruptions. The methodology consists in the development of a data integration infrastructure and access methods capable of 1) automatic search and identification of image patterns and event data records produced by space and ground-based observatories, 2) automatic association of parallel multi-wavelength/multi-instrument database entries with unique patterns or event identifiers, 3) automatic retrieval of such data records and pipeline processing for the purpose of annotating each pattern or event according to a predefined set of physical parameters inferable from complementary data sources, and 4) generation of a pattern or catalog and associated user-friendly graphical interface tools that are capable to provide fast search, quick preview, and automatic data retrieval capabilities. The Team has developed and implemented the Helioportal that provides a synergy of solar flare observations, taking advantage of big datasets from the ground- and space-based instruments, and allows the larger research community to significantly speed up investigations of flare events, perform a broad range of new statistical and case studies, and test and validate theoretical and computational models. The Helioportal accumulates, integrates and presents records of physical descriptors of solar flares, as well as the magnetic characteristic of active regions from various catalogs of observational data from different observatories and heliophysics missions.
Time series datasets often have missing or corrupted entries, which need to be ignored in subsequent data analysis. For example, in the context of space physics, calibration issues, satellite telemetry issues, and unexpected events can make parts of a time series unusable. Various approaches exist to tackle this problem, including mean/median imputation, linear interpolation, and autoregressive modeling. Here we study the utility of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict statistics, particularly second-order structure functions, of turbulent time series concerning the solar wind. Using a dataset with artificial gaps, a neural network is trained to predict second-order structure functions and then tested on an unseen dataset to quantify its performance. A small feedforward ANN, with only 20 hidden neurons, can predict the large-scale fluctuation amplitudes better than mean imputation or linear interpolation when the percentage of missing data is high. Although they perform worse than the other methods when it comes to capturing both the shape and fluctuation amplitude together, their performance is better in a statistical sense for large fractions of missing data. Caveats regarding their utility, the optimisation procedure, and potential future improvements are discussed.