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New Space Companies Meet a “Normal” Solar Maximum
  • +3
  • Noe Lugaz,
  • Huixin Liu,
  • Brett A. Carter,
  • Jennifer Gannon,
  • Shasha Zou,
  • Steven K. Morley
Noe Lugaz
University of New Hampshire

Corresponding Author:

Huixin Liu
Brett A. Carter
Jennifer Gannon
Author Profile
Shasha Zou
Author Profile
Steven K. Morley


The monthly mean sunspot number has been larger in June-July 2023 than the double peak of solar cycle 24 (146 in February 2014 and 139 in November 2011) and brings us back to the sunspot level of solar cycle 23. However, the number of rocket launches, satellites in orbit and private space companies has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Additionally, there is a growing interest for space exploration beyond Earth’s orbit, to the Moon and beyond, which comes with higher risk of being affected by space weather. Here, we discuss some of these trends and the role of the journal to improve awareness of space weather impacts.
01 Sep 2023Submitted to ESS Open Archive
01 Sep 2023Published in ESS Open Archive