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Direct Evidence for Diverse Source Complexity in Small Earthquakes (Mw3.3-5.0) Obtained from Short-Range Borehole Seismic Data
  • Keisuke Yoshida
Keisuke Yoshida

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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A good understanding of the rupture patterns of small earthquakes is essential to understand the differences between earthquakes of different sizes. However, resolving the source complexity of small events (Mw<5) is challenging, because their seismic waveforms are distorted during propagation. In this study, we used high-quality seismic waveforms recorded by an excellent downhole sensor in Japan to directly examine the source complexities of 64 Mw3.3-5.0 short-range earthquakes (< 8 km). We found that even the waveforms of microearthquakes (Mw < 2) were simple at the sensor, indicating that the waveforms were scarcely disturbed by structural inhomogeneities. We inferred the moment rate functions from the shapes of the direct P-waves, which showed diversity in their complexity. Even conservatively estimated, 30% of the events had multiple subevents. The results suggest that methods that account for complexity, rather than those that assume a simple source pattern, are required to characterize even small earthquakes.
09 Dec 2023Submitted to ESS Open Archive
10 Dec 2023Published in ESS Open Archive