We show that the return-point memory of cyclic macroscopic trajectories enables the derivation of a thermodynamic framework for quasistatically driven dissipative systems with multiple metastable states. We use this framework to sort out and quantify the energy dissipated in quasistatic fluid-fluid displacements in disordered media. Numerical computations of imbibition--drainage cycles in a quasi-2D medium with gap thickness modulations (imperfect Hele-Shaw cell) show that energy dissipation in quasistatic displacements is due to abrupt changes in the fluid-fluid configuration between consecutive metastable states (Haines jumps), and its dependence on microstructure and gravity. The relative importance of viscous dissipation is deduced from comparison with quasistatic experiments.
The distribution of a mosaic of biological soil crusts (BSCs) and shrubs is a common landscape surface feature in temperate deserts. With the continued climatic change, the desert shrub experiences varying rates of mortality which has serious negative impacts on soil structure and functions. However, it is not clear whether BSCs, which develop extensively in areas under shrub canopies, can mitigate the effects of shrub mortality on soil nutrient multifunctionality. Therefore, in this study, the Gurbantungut Desert, a typical temperate desert in northern China, was selected as the study area, and the dominant shrubs, Ephedra przewalskii shrub, and the moss crust were used as the study objects. Soil samples were collected from the bare sand and moss crusts under the living shrub and the dead shrub and analyzed to determine their carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents. The results showed that the shrub mortality reduced the soil moisture content, pH, electric conductivity, and carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in the bare sand compared with the bare sand under the living shrub. The presence of the moss crust greatly mitigated the negative impacts of shrub mortality on soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents, and the nutrient multifunctionality of the moss crust was only reduced by 4.01% compared with the reduction by bare sand (67.42%) after shrub mortality. The results of SEM analysis showed that with the coexistence of shrubs and crust, the effect of shrubs on soil multifunctionality was much stronger than that of the moss crust; compared with available nutrients, the total nutrient content was the most important factor driving changes in soil nutrient multifunctionality. In conclusion, in desert ecosystems with degraded shrubs, moss crusts can mitigate the reduction in soil nutrient contents caused by shrub degradation and, therefore, maintain the soil stability and nutrient multifunctionality as a “substitute”.
Defining quantitative soil health goals can support efforts to improve soil quality and meet broader ecosystem services goals, while simultaneously helping field-level benchmarking of soil health on farms. But soil health metrics in agricultural systems require edaphic context, notably climate, soil type (soil texture and classification), as well as cropping system. Soil samples (n=1,328) from New York State (USA) with Land Resource Regions (LRR), texture, and cropping system information were analyzed for eight physical and biological soil health indicators (soil organic matter, permanganate-oxidizable carbon, respiration, protein, available water capacity, wet aggregate stability, and penetration resistance from 0-15 and 15-45 cm), and population distribution functions were determined. Production environment soil health (PESH) goals were derived for four soil texture groups and six cropping systems by proposing the 75th and 90th percentile for each factorial class. Finer-textured soils and Pasture and Mixed Vegetable cropping systems generally had the highest values for soil health goals, followed by Dairy Crop and Orchard systems, then Annual Grain, and lastly Processing Vegetable systems. Long Island (LRR-S) had soil organic matter PESH goals that were on average 0.7 % lower than the rest of New York State (LRRs-L&R). This implies that regional PESH goals within a state or region may be warranted if edaphic context is considerably different.
Sustainable river management can be supported by models predicting long-term morphological developments. Even for one-dimensional morphological models, run times can be up to several days for simulations over multiple decades. Alternatively, analytical tools yield metrics that allow estimation of migration celerity and damping of bed waves, which have potential for being used as rapid assessment tools to explore future morphological developments. We evaluate the use of analytical relations based on linear stability analyses of the St. Venant-Exner equations, which apply to bed waves with spatial scales much larger than the water depth. With a one-dimensional numerical morphological model, we assess the validity range of the analytical approach. The comparison shows that the propagation of small bed perturbations is well-described by the analytical approach. For Froude numbers over 0.3, diffusion becomes important and bed perturbation celerities reduce in time. A spatial-mode linear stability analysis predicts an upper limit for the bed perturbation celerity. For longer and higher bed perturbations, the dimensions relative to the water depth and the backwater curve length determine whether the analytical approach yields realistic results. For higher bed wave amplitudes, non-linearity becomes important. For Froude numbers ≤0.3, the celerity of bed waves is increasingly underestimated by the analytical approach. The degree of underestimation is proportional to the ratio of bed wave amplitude to water depth and the Froude number. For Froude numbers exceeding 0.3, the net impact on the celerity depends on the balance between the decrease due to damping and the increase due to non-linear interaction.
A study was conducted in none tilled coffee agroforestry fields of Eastern Uganda to understand the effects of application of inorganic fertilizers on soil nutrient loss in form of gas for mitigation of unsustainable agricultural practices. This study specifically i) assessed the effect of application of inorganic fertilizers on greenhouse gas emissions, ii) determined their effect on microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and iii) determined their effect on leaf litter decomposition under Albizzia-coffee growing systems of the Mount Elgon. Soil gas emissions were measured with the static chamber method for twelve months in a field experiment with five different fertilizer treatments. The effect of treatments was separated using ANOVA in Genstat discovery version 13. Microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus was separated using Mann-Whitney U test. Results showed that annual emissions ranged from 19.6 to 26.1 (t C/ha/yr), 3.5 to 9 (Kg N/ha/yr) and 6.9 to 9.2 (Kg C/ha/yr) for carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane respectively. Significant effects on soil emissions only occurred for nitrous oxide (P=0.017), microbial carbon (p=0.001) and microbial phosphorus (p<0.001) for the study period. The mixture of NPK fertilizers presented the lowest carbon dioxide loss and application of TSP presented the lowest nitrous oxide emission from soil. This study underscores the need for establishment of long-term experiments across several agro-ecological zones to confirm farmers’ perceptions of their soil fertility levels and ascertain the contribution of farm practices towards the retention of nutrients in the soil with minimal emission, to inform decisions of small holder farmers, policy and development partners for sustainable production.
Agricultural systems have potential to store carbon (C) when soil C management practices are in place. Some of these practices may include the production of perennial crops, inclusion of grass species in a crop rotation, reduced tillage, and leaving post-harvest crop residues in the field. Increases in soil C could be beneficial to enhance soil fertility, soil biodiversity, and soil structure, and could also provide opportunities for participation in future C markets. There is great interest to determine the C storage of Oregon grass seed systems and the role of management practices on C cycling for potential involvement in cap-and-trade, soil C, or soil health incentive programs. A better understanding of these factors should help inform future offset projects and help establish the potential for the grass seed industry to participate in incentive programs that may reward management decisions that lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions or greater C storage. This review presents the current state of knowledge on C storage in both perennial and annual grass seed cropping systems and identifies knowledge gaps as a resource for C storage estimates. Soil C discussions are focused on two main themes: 1) overall estimates of soil C storage and the factors that influence this parameter in the topsoil of grass seed production fields, and 2) comparison of how soil C storage in grass seed cropping systems compare to intensively managed and uncultivated/minimally managed cropping systems.
The biogeochemical cycles of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in lakes and reservoirs have predictable seasonal trends, largely governed by stratification dynamics and redox conditions in the hypolimnion. However, short-term (i.e., sub-weekly) trends in Fe and Mn cycling are less well-understood, as most monitoring efforts focus on longer-term (i.e., monthly to yearly) time scales. The potential for elevated Fe and Mn to degrade water quality and impact ecosystem functioning, coupled with increasing evidence for high spatiotemporal variability in other biogeochemical cycles, necessitates a closer evaluation of the short-term Fe and Mn cycling dynamics in lakes and reservoirs. We adapted a UV-visible spectrophotometer coupled with a multiplexor pumping system and PLSR modeling to generate high spatiotemporal resolution predictions of Fe and Mn concentrations in a drinking water reservoir (Falling Creek Reservoir, Vinton, VA, USA) equipped with a hypolimnetic oxygenation (HOx) system. We quantified hourly Fe and Mn concentrations during two distinct transitional periods: reservoir turnover (Fall 2020) and initiation of the HOx system (Summer 2021). Our sensor system was able to successfully predict mean Fe and Mn concentrations as well as capture sub-weekly variability, ground-truthed by traditional grab sampling and laboratory analysis. During fall turnover, hypolimnetic Fe and Mn concentrations began to decrease more than two weeks before complete mixing of the reservoir occurred, with rapid equalization of epilimnetic and hypolimnetic Fe and Mn concentrations in less than 48 hours after full water column mixing. During the initiation of hypolimnetic oxygenation in Summer 2021, we observed that Fe and Mn were similarly affected by physical mixing in the hypolimnion, but displayed distinctly different responses to oxygenation, as indicated by the rapid oxidation of soluble Fe but not soluble Mn. This study demonstrates that Fe and Mn concentrations are highly sensitive to shifting DO and stratification and that their dynamics can substantially change on hourly to daily time scales in response to these transitions.
The seismic waves emitted during granular flows are generated by different sources: high frequencies by inter-particle collisions and low frequencies by global motion and large scale deformation. To unravel these different mechanisms, an experimental study has been performed on the seismic waves emitted by dry, dense, quasi-steady granular flows. The emitted seismic waves were recorded using shock accelerometers and the flow dynamics were captured with a fast camera. The mechanical characteristics of the particle collisions were analyzed, along with the intervals between collisions and the correlations in particles’ motion. The high-frequency seismic waves (1-50 kHz) were found to originate from particle collisions and waves trapped in the flowing layer. The low-frequency waves (20-60 Hz) were generated by particles’ oscillations along their trajectories, i.e. from cycles of dilation/compression during coherent shear. The profiles of granular temperature (i.e. the mean squared value of particle velocity fluctuations) and average velocity were measured and related to each other, then used in a simple steady granular flow model, in which the seismic signal consists of the variously attenuated contributions of shear-induced Hertzian collisions throughout the flow, to predict the rate at which seismic energy was emitted. Agreement with the measured seismic power was reasonable, and scaling laws relating the seismic power, the shear strain rate and the inertial number were derived. In particular, the emitted seismic power was observed to be approximately proportional to the root mean square velocity fluctuation to the power $3.1 \pm 0.9$, with the latter related to the mean flow velocity.
Tidal salt marshes are widespread along the World’s coasts, and are ecologically and economically important as they provide several valuable ecosystem services. In particular, their significant primary production, coupled with sustained vertical accretion rates, enables marshes to sequester and store large amounts of organic carbon and makes them one of the most carbon-rich ecosystems on Earth. Organic carbon accumulation results from the balance between inputs, i.e. organic matter produced by local plants or imported, and outputs through decomposition and erosion. Additionally, organic matter deposition actively contributes to marsh vertical accretion, thus critically affecting the resilience of marsh ecosystems to rising relative sea levels. A better understanding of organic-matter dynamics in salt marshes is key to address salt-marsh conservation issues and to elucidate marsh importance within the global carbon cycle. Toward this goal, we empirically derived rates of organic matter decomposition by burying 712 commercially available tea bags at different marshes in the microtidal Venice Lagoon (Italy), and by analyzing them following the Tea Bag Index protocol. We find values of the decomposition rate (k) and stabilization factor (S) equal to 0.012±0.003 day-1 and 0.15±0.063, respectively. Water temperature critically affects organic matter decomposition, enhancing decomposition rates by 8% per °C on average. We argue that, at least in the short term, the amount of undecomposed organic matter that actively contributes to carbon sequestration and marsh vertical accretion strongly depends on the initial organic matter quality, which is a function of marsh and vegetation characteristics.
In this paper a set of equations governing the electromagnetic/acoustic coupling in partially-saturated porous rocks in the low-frequency regime is derived. The equations are obtained by volume averaging of fundamental electromagnetic and mechanical equations valid at the porescale, following the same procedure as the one developed in the seminal paper of S. Pride for porous media where the fluid electrolyte fully saturates the pore space. In the present approach it is assumed that the porous rock is partially saturated with a wetting-fluid electrolyte
Moisture recycling via evapotranspiration (ET) is often invoked as a mechanism for the high deuterium excess signals observed in continental precipitation (dP). However, a global-scale analysis of precipitation monitoring station isotope data shows that metrics of ET contributions to precipitation (van der Ent et al., 2014) explain little dp variability on seasonal timescales. This occurs despite the fact that ET contributions increase by ~50% in continental locations such as the Eurasian interior from wet to dry seasons. To explain this apparent paradox, we hypothesize that the effects of ET on dP are dampened during dry seasons due to contributions from isotopically-evolved residual water storage that act to lower the d-excess of ET fluxes (dET), in combination with changes in transpiration fraction (T/ET). To test this hypothesis, we develop a parsimonious two-season (wet, dry) model for dET incorporating residual water storage and ET partitioning effects. We find that in environments with limited water storage, such as shallow-rooted grasslands, dry season dET is lower than wet season dET despite lower relative humidity. As global average ratios of annual water storage to precipitation are relatively low (Guntner et al., 2007), these dynamics may be widespread over continents. In environments where water storage is not limiting, such as groundwater-dependent ecosystems, dry season dET is still likely lower; however, this effect arises instead due to higher seasonal T/ET when energy-driven plant water use is enhanced and surface evaporation is relatively limited by water availability. Together, these analyses also indicate multiple mechanisms by which dET may be lower than dp during the same season, challenging the view that moisture recycling feedback increases the dp in continental interiors. This work demonstrates the potential complexity of seasonal dp dynamics and cautions against simple interpretations of dP as a process tracer for moisture recycling. References: Guntner et al., 2007. Water Resour. Res., 43, W05416. van der Ent et al., 2014. Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 471–489.
Earth System Models’ complex land components simulate a patchwork of increases and decreases in surface water availability when driven by projected future climate changes. Yet, commonly-used simple theories for surface water availability, such as the Aridity Index (P/E0) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), obtain severe, globally dominant drying when driven by those same climate changes, leading to disagreement among published studies. In this work, we use a common modeling framework to show that ESM simulated runoff-ratio and soil-moisture responses become much more consistent with the P/E0 and PDSI responses when several previously known factors that the latter do not account for are cut out of the simulations. This reconciles the disagreement and makes the full ESM responses more understandable. For ESM runoff ratio, the most important factor causing the more positive global response compared to P/E0 is the concentration of precipitation in time with greenhouse warming. For ESM soil moisture, the most important factor causing the more positive global response compared to PDSI is the effect of increasing carbon dioxide on plant physiology, which also drives most of the spatial variation in the runoff ratio enhancement. The effect of increasing vapor-pressure deficit on plant physiology is a key secondary factor for both. Future work will assess the utility of both the ESMs and the simple indices for understanding observed, historical trends.
Alkalinization of natural waters by the dissolution of natural or artificial minerals is a promising solution to sequester atmospheric CO$_2$ and counteract acidification. Here we address the alkalinization carbon capture efficiency (ACCE) by deriving an analytical factor that quantifies the increase in dissolved inorganic carbon in the water due to variations in alkalinity. We show that ACCE strongly depends on the water pH, with a sharp transition from minimum to maximum in a narrow interval of pH values. We also compare ACCE in surface freshwater and seawater and discuss potential bounds for ACCE in the soil water. Finally, we present two applications of ACCE. The first is a local application to 156 lakes in an acid-sensitive region, highlighting the great sensitivity of ACCE to the lake pH. The second is a global application to the surface ocean, revealing a latitudinal pattern of ACCE driven by differences in temperature and salinity.
UCSC GEOPATHS is an NSF-supported initiative to improve undergraduate success in the geosciences, driven by a desire to broaden academic engagement. One component of the program is a funded undergraduate summer program that provides authentic, professional experiences – across all employment sectors – to increase commitment in the geoscience pipeline. Many hydrologic basins rely on groundwater to supply domestic, municipal, and agricultural demand, but resources are increasingly stressed by rising demand, changes in land use, and a shifting climate. Consequences of groundwater overdraft include drying surface water systems, land subsidence, and seawater intrusion. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) can help improve groundwater resources by increasing infiltration of excess surface water. We are part of a research team assessing hydrologic conditions during MAR on an active vineyard in Central California, through diversion of high flows from an adjacent river, a strategy known as “flood-MAR.” Our team collected soil samples from the upper 100 cm below ground surface at 24 locations across the 785-acre field site. We analyzed samples for soil texture at 10-cm spacing using a particle size analyzer based on laser light scattering. Preliminary analysis of fractions of sand, silt, and clay-sized particles indicate some lateral continuity from site to site. The northern part of the field area appears to be finer grained, on average, consistent with regional soil maps, but there is also considerable variability with depth. These data will be used to assess variations in expected infiltration rates by combining soil texture (to estimate infiltration capacity) and potential flood and saturation depths (to bracket vertical head gradients). Studies of this kind are helpful for assessing the efficacy of flood-MAR as a strategy to improve groundwater supplies and quality.
Most tree species predominantly associate with a single type of mycorrhizal fungi, which can differentially affect plant nutrient acquisition and biogeochemical cycling. Here, we address for the first time the impact of mycorrhizal distributions on global carbon and nutrient cycling. Using the state-of-the-art carbon-nitrogen economics within the Community Land Model version 5 (CLM5) we found Net Primary Productivity (NPP) increased throughout the 21st century by 20%; however, as soil nitrogen has progressively become limiting, the costs to NPP for nitrogen acquisition — i.e., to mycorrhizae — have increased at a faster rate by 60%. This suggests that nutrient acquisition will increasingly demand a higher portion of assimilated carbon to support the same productivity. Uncertainties in mycorrhizal distributions are non-trivial, however, with uncertainties in NPP by up to 345 Tg C yr-1, depending on which published distribution is used. Remote sensing capabilities for mycorrhizal detection show promise for refining these estimates further.
The increasing use of the seasonally frozen and permafrost regions for civil engineering constructions and the effects of global warming on these regions have stimulated research on the behaviors of frozen soils. In the present study, the frost heave characteristics of a coarse-grained soil with volcanic nature was experimentally investigated. A large soil tank model was established in laboratory for this purpose. The effects of temperature boundary, external water supply, and water transfer type on the frost heave characteristics of the volcanic soil were studied, through a series of frost heave tests. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to quantify the full field deformation of the soil specimen. The results suggest that temperature gradient inside the soil specimen is the driving force for the migration of pore water and vapor. The largest increment in water content generally agrees well with the frost penetration depth. The contribution of vapor to the frost heave of the Komaoka soil specimen is typically small. The applied seeding method, selected subset size, image-object space calibration, and calculation processes ensured accurate PIV results. Discussions regarding the presented experimental investigation and the employment of PIV technique for quantifying frozen soil deformation are summarized. These findings and discussions can provide valuable insights into the frost heave behavior of the studied soil in particular, as well as promote the application of PIV for frozen soil engineering.
Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters, resulting in a huge number of fatalities and economic losses all over the world. For regions with limited number of seismic networks or for regions where there is a seismic gap to produce large magnitude and destructive earthquakes, ground motion simulation approaches provide alternative region-specific time histories for potential events. Region-specific simulations require modeling and calibration of input parameters in terms of source, path and site effects. Verification of these parameters is a challenging task and can be accomplished through comparing the real time histories of the past events against the simulated data. In this study, the recorded time histories of the 9th of July 1998 Faial earthquake (Mw=6.2) at available stations are simulated with the stochastic finite-fault ground motion simulation approach based on a dynamic corner frequency concept. For ground motion simulations, alternative region-specific source, path and site models are employed and tested. The best model is proposed through goodness of fit score which is evaluated through the complementary error function in terms of various seismological parameters between the real and simulated record sets. These seismological parameters include peak ground acceleration peak ground velocity, the ratio of peak ground velocity to peak ground acceleration, Arias intensity, cumulative absolute velocity, acceleration spectrum intensity, modified acceleration spectrum intensity for the period range of 0.1 to 2.5 seconds, velocity spectrum intensity, Housner intensity, significant duration, bracketed duration, Fourier amplitude spectra within the frequency range of 0.1 to 25 Hz and pseudo response spectra within the period range of 0 to 4 seconds. The simulation results demonstrate that for the event of interest the input parameters are verified, and the fits between the real and simulated time histories are satisfactory. Keywords: The 1998 Faial Earthquake, Azores- North Atlantic, Stochastic finite-fault Ground Motion Simulation method, Goodness of Fit Score
Using E-W and vertical deformation-rate maps derived from radar interferometric time-series, we analyze the deformation field of an entire orogenic segment, i.e., the Tajik depression and its adjoining mountain belts, Tian Shan, Pamir, and Hindu Kush. The data-base consists of 900+ radar scenes acquired over 2.0–4.5 years and global navigation satellite system measurements. The recent, supra-regional kinematics is visualized in an unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. We confirm the westward collapse of the Pamir-Plateau crust, inverting the Tajik basin into a fold-thrust belt with shortening rates decaying westward from ~15 to 2 mm/yr. Vertical rates in the Hindu Kush likely record slab-dynamic effects, i.e., the progressive break-off of the Hindu Kush slab. At least 10 mm/yr of each, uplift and westward motion occur along the western edge of the Pamir Plateau, outlining the crustal-scale ramp along which the Pamir Plateau overrides the Tajik depression. The latter shows a combination of basin-scale tectonics, halokinesis, and seasonal/weather-driven near-surface effects. Abrupt ~6 mm/yr horizontal-rate changes occur across the kinematically-linked dextral Ilyak strike-slip fault, bounding the Tajik fold-thrust belt to the north, and the Babatag backthrust, the major thrust of the fold-thrust belt, located far west in the belt. The sharp rate decay across the Ilyak fault indicates a locking depth of ≤1 km. The Hoja Mumin salt fountain is spreading laterally at ≤350 mm/yr. On the first-order, the modern 20–5 and fossil (since ~12 Ma) 12–8 mm/yr shortening rates across the fold-thrust belt correspond.