IntroductionGlobalization has a profound effect on the global society and its impact is felt in many aspects of life (Shukla & Pandey, 2023). Globalization is the process of increasing economic, social, and cultural connectivity and integration on a global scale (Lang, 2006). International trade, cross-border investment, migration, and cultural interchange have increased as a result of globalization (Barış, 2023). Likewise, multinational firms, global supply chains, and a worldwide division of labor have all grown as a result of globalization (Aluko & Opoku, 2022). Consequently, countries can now specialize in particular products and services, which boosts productivity and efficiency. This can lead to economic expansion through job creation, especially in developing countries (Barış, 2023).While globalization has created many opportunities and advantages for people and businesses, it has also led to serious problems including inequality (Carneiro & Traiberman, 2023), cultural erosion (Allred, Harris, Zaman, et al., 2022), and environmental destruction (Fischer, 2003; Karaduman, 2022). In this work, I aim to exclusively discuss the impacts of globalization on culture.Impacts of globalization on cultureCulture has been significantly impacted by globalization in different ways.Globalization has increased regional cultural integration through a new common languageLanguage is an important component of culture since it contributes to the definition of a community’s cultural identity. It affects how people interact with one another, communicates, and think (Ojoo, 2023). Moreover, language serves as a means of expressing and maintaining cultural heritage and reflects values, customs, and beliefs (Zajda, 2023). For instance, in many cultures, language and the sense of identity are closely intertwined. The ability to speak a certain language is frequently seen as a sign of membership in a particular group.The English language has become the most widely spoken language in the world thanks to globalization (Farmonovna, 2023), which has made it easier for people from many cultures to communicate with one another. As a result, chances for regional and continental integration have increased, bringing together people from various cultural backgrounds and perspectives. A common language opens opportunities for intercultural marriages which have a profound effect on local culture (Barinova, Barinova, & Kim, 2023). Additionally, the widespread use of English is fostering cross-cultural communication and connecting an ever-widening range of global communities, creating a wealth of chances for understanding and cooperation on a global scale.Globalization has led to an increase in cultural diversityThe diversity of cultures has increased as a result of globalization. People have been exposed to a variety of civilizations as a result of the spread of cultures from diverse regions of the world.The process of globalization has brought about an increase in the exposure of people to diverse cultures from around the world. This has led to a significant rise in the variety of musical genres and fusions. With the help of technology and digital platforms, musicians can now collaborate with other artists, share their work, and reach audiences from different parts of the world. For instance, Bourreau, Moreau, and Wikström (2022) found that the emergence of audio streaming services has resulted in a considerable increase in the diversity of music genres in the industry. This has been a positive impact of globalization on cultural content.Moreover, globalization has also led to an increase in the diversity of food options available in various parts of the world. The proliferation of cuisines from different regions has given rise to new culinary innovations and fusions. However, there are concerns about the sustainability and authenticity of food production, as well as the potential negative effects of culturally unfamiliar food on native diets and health. Stalmirska (2023) argues that for local populations to improve the variety of cuisines available in their regions, they need to change their attitudes toward foods from other cultures. Despite this, recent research has shown that many people still value the authenticity and traditional components of their local cuisine (Feldman & Wunderlich, 2023).Globalization has led to cultural hybridizationThe effects of globalization on local communities’ cultural trajectories have been the subject of extensive research (Billig, 2023; Bondar, 2023). The historical systems of ideas and practices, as well as other aspects of culture, are greatly influenced by globalization. The blending of various civilizations has led to the creation of new cultures. As a result, new cultural fusions that are wholly original have emerged. India, for example, has undergone cultural fusion as a result of its postcolonial history (Rumsey, 2023). As an illustration, varying migrant pathways in Goa influenced religious and cultural identities (see Rumsey, 2023). According to a recent study, globalization can be a powerful instrument for integrating foreign cultures into local society through advancing media technology (Kamran, Bhutta, Shamshad, et al., 2023). In contrast to older people, authors discovered that the younger generation in society is more prone to adopt foreign cultures. This shows that the globalization index will continue to increase with time thus a need for global societies to learn how to cope to prevent extreme cultural homogenization that may have detrimental impacts on local cultures.Historically, Arabic and indigenous Bantu speakers coexisted, resulting in the creation of Swahili culture along East Africa’s Indian Ocean coastline (Wangila, 2023). This historical illustration shows how cultural hybridization as a result of globalization is key in producing new cultures. However, the emergence of new cultures is viable where people from different cultures interact in large numbers with a language limitation. The online translation platforms and availability of common languages that are currently available may prevent the creation of new cultures. This is reasonable because language is vital in the creation and maintenance of cultures (Farmonovna, 2023).Globalization has led to WesternizationGlobalization has led to the spread of Western culture, which has presented challenges to traditional beliefs and values. This has resulted in the emergence of new societal norms and discussions (Kanu & Igboechesi, 2023). Researchers and the general public have debated issues such as human rights and democratic government. However, concerns have also arisen about the influence of Western values on local cultures and the possible degradation of traditional beliefs and practices, including attire, cuisine, and ways of living.Studies have shown that Western culture has had an impact on other cultures worldwide. For example, Shukla and Pandey (2023) claim that Indian customs and rituals have lost some of their influence due to globalization. The strict regulation of gender segregation, which was deeply rooted in Indian culture, has become less prevalent. This has made it easier for young people to interact with one another, which has led to changes in Indian philosophy, increasing the importance of physical relationships among young people. Similarly, other cultures, such as those in Africa, have been affected by Westernization (Kanu & Igboechesi, 2023). Some countries in Asia have responded to this by actively promoting their cultures through cultural education for young people (Lim, 2023).The influence of Western music has also spread globally due to globalization. In India, for instance, Western music has gained popularity among young people, resulting in the emergence of a youth subculture (Laskar, 2023). However, there are still differences in music preferences among young people from rural and urban areas, with rural youth having stronger attachments to regional and local music. This phenomenon may also lead to the development of a hybrid music style combining local and Western cultural elements.Traditional oath systems for justice, which existed in many communities globally, have been impacted by globalization. In many African cultures, the traditional oath system helped to foster unity and justice within the community (Uwaezuoke & Udominyang, 2023). However, the spread of Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam in Africa, along with the adoption of formal legal systems, has challenged traditional belief systems.In summary, globalization has fostered the spread of Western culture, which has presented both opportunities and challenges for local cultures. While some cultures have embraced Westernization, others have responded by promoting their traditional values and beliefs.Globalization has affected the family composition and structureThe traditional family unit and social relationships have been disrupted by globalization, especially in Africa (Kanu & Igboechesi, 2023). People are moving away from the traditional polygamous and extended family structure and becoming more independent and autonomous. People may now relocate more easily, which has increased the number of international marriages, multicultural families, and children. It also prompts worries about the decline of family traditions and values, and cultural confrontations between various family cultures (see Shukla & Pandey 2023).
We enhance the Community Land Model (CLM) snow albedo modeling by implementing several new features with more realistic and physical representations of snow-aerosol-radiation interactions. Specifically, we incorporate the following model enhancements: (1) updating ice and aerosol optical properties with more realistic and accurate datasets, (2) adding multiple dust types, (3) adding multiple surface downward solar spectra to account for different atmospheric conditions, (4) incorporating a more accurate adding-doubling radiative transfer solver, (5) adding nonspherical snow grain representation, (6) adding black carbon-snow and dust-snow internal mixing representations, and (7) adding a hyperspectral (480-band versus the default 5-band) modeling capability. These model features/enhancements are included as new CLM physics/namelist options, which allows for quantification of model sensitivity to snow albedo processes and for multi-physics model ensemble analyses for uncertainty assessment. The model updates will be included in the next CLM version release. Sensitivity analyses reveal stronger impacts of using the new adding-doubling solver, nonspherical snow grains, and aerosol-snow internal mixing than the other new features/enhancements. These enhanced snow albedo representations improve the CLM simulated global snowpack evolution and land surface conditions, with reduced biases in simulated snow surface albedo, snow cover, snow water equivalent, snow depth, and surface temperature, particularly over northern mid-latitude mountainous regions and polar regions.
Numerous recent studies found significant correlations between weakening of the Gulf Stream (GS) and rising coastal sea level (CSL) along the U.S. East Coast. Based on monthly altimeter data and Florida Current transport, Chi et al. (2023; here, CH23) argued that geostrophic adjustment of the GS is unlikely to drive variations in CSL in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB). It is argued here that this conclusion cannot be universally applicable to all cases, since the monthly data disregard correlations previously found for short time scales based on hourly and daily data; the impact of GS variability on time scales of decades and longer as well as potential time lags between the GS and CSL variability were also not considered by CH23. Examples are given here to demonstrate the important role of the GS in post hurricane coastal flooding.
A novel, multi-scale climate modeling approach is used to show the potential for increases in future tornado intensity due to anthropogenic climate change. Historical warm- and cool-season (WARM and COOL) tornado events are virtually placed in a globally warmed future via the “pseudo-global warming” method. As hypothesized based on meteorological arguments, the tornadic-storm and associated vortex of the COOL event experiences consistent and robust increases in intensity, and size in an ensemble of imposed climate-change experiments. The tornadic-storm and associated vortex of the WARM event experiences increases in intensity in some of the experiments, but the response is neither consistent nor robust, and is overall weaker than in the COOL event. An examination of environmental parameters provides further support of the disproportionately stronger response in the cool-season event. These results have implications on future tornadoes forming outside of climatologically favored seasons.
Surface ocean temperature and velocity anomalies at meso- and sub-meso-scales induce wind stress anomalies. These wind-front interactions, referred to as thermal (TFB) and current (CFB) feedbacks, respectively, have been studied in isolation at mesoscale, yet they have rarely been considered in tandem. Here, we assess the combined influence of TFB and CFB and their relative impact on surface wind stress derivatives. Analyses are based on output from two regions of the Southern Ocean in a 4-6 km-resolution coupled simulation. Considering both TFB and CFB shows regimes of interference, which remain mostly linear down to the simulation resolution. The jointly-generated wind stress curl anomalies approach 10-5 N-3, ~20 times stronger than at mesoscale. The synergy of both feedbacks improves the ability to reconstruct wind stress curl magnitude and structure from both surface vorticity and SST gradients by 12-37% on average, compared with using either one alone.
A high-resolution simulation of CO2 at 1×1 km horizontal resolution using the Weather Research and Forecasting Greenhouse gas (WRF-GHG) model was conducted, focusing on the Kanto region in Japan. The WRF-GHG simulations were performed using different anthropogenic emission inventories: EAGrid (Japan, 1 km), EDGAR (0.1o), and EDGAR-downscaled (0.01o). Our analysis showed that the simulations using EAGrid better captured the diurnal variability in observed CO2 compared to EDGAR and EDGAR-downscaled emissions at two continuous monitoring sites. The 1×1 km simulation performed better in simulating CO2 variability observed in surface sites (hourly) and aircraft observations, compared to the 27×27 km simulations. We compared the vertical profile distribution of CO2 and found that all the simulations performed similarly. During February (May), the anthropogenic (land biosphere) fluxes were the primary contributor to the vertical distribution of CO2 up to an altitude of 3200 m (4500 m), beyond which long-range transport influenced by lateral boundary conditions from Eurasia played a greater role. The sensitivity analysis of boundary conditions showed a systematic bias (~ 4 ppm) persisting above 3200 m altitude when fixed (a constant value) boundary conditions are applied, as compared to the simulation with boundary conditions from a global model. We also compared the WRF-GHG simulated column-averaged XCO2 from Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite and found a statistically significant spatial correlation (r=0.47) in February. However, we found a weaker spatial correlation (0.17) in May, which could be caused due to under-representation of intense land biosphere activity in WRF-GHG.
In August 2017, a smoke plume from wildfires in British Columbia and the Northwest Territories recirculated and persisted over northern Canada for over two weeks. We compared a full-factorial set of NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE simulations of the plume to satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth and carbon monoxide, finding that ModelE performance was dependent on the model configuration, and more so on the choice of injection height approach, aerosol scheme and biomass burning emissions estimates than to the choice of horizontal winds for nudging. In particular, ModelE simulations with free-tropospheric smoke injection, a mass-based aerosol scheme and high fire NOx emissions led to unrealistically high aerosol optical depth. Using paired simulations with fire emissions excluded, we estimated that for 16 days over an 850 000 km2 region, the smoke decreased planetary boundary layer heights by between 253 m and 547 m, decreased downward shortwave radiation by between 52 Wm-2 and 172 Wm-2, and decreased surface temperature by between 1.5 oC and 4.9 oC, the latter spanning an independent estimate from operational weather forecasts of a 3.7 oC cooling. The strongest surface climate effects were for ModelE configurations with more detailed aerosol microphysics that led to a stronger first indirect effect.
Headland sediment transport is dynamic and complex, but understanding the transport mechanisms is necessary for effective long-term management of downdrift beach compartments. In this study, we have develop a coastal process model using TUFLOWFV, that is used to calibrate an approximation tool for headland bypassing at the study site. The approximation tool is shown to reproduce sediment transport rates at the headland apexes accurately and efficiently. We have explored the headland sediment transport mechanism, the influence of wave height and direction, and the sensitivity in regional climate conditions. Headland sediment transport is shown to occur as ‘trickle’ bypassing under modal wave conditions or ‘sand slug’ migration under storm wave conditions that travel in either a headland-attached and a cross-embayment pathway. Bypassing during storm wave conditions produces 50% to 60% of total bypassing volume, despite only accounting for 6% of the recorded days. The results indicate that headland transport is sensitive to changes in wave direction and wave height, with the existing mean wave direction balancing sediment transport on the east and north faces of the headland. Seasonality is the most significant climatic control on headland transport, while ENSO phase is only significant for the headland apexes that are exposed to south-east wave conditions. The potential for anticlockwise rotation of the wave climate in future is explored, with greater erosion of the northern beaches of the headland likely due to a reduced supply of sediment around the eastern point of the headland and greater erosive wave power on the north side.
Paleoclimate records can be considered low-dimensional projections of the climate system that generated them. Understanding what these projections tell us about past climates and changes in their dynamics is the main goal of time series analysis on such records. Linear techniques provide insight into changes in the periodic behavior of the climate, but are intrinsically limited. Novel tools from nonlinear time series analysis allow us to examine changes in other kinds of behavior that are reflected in these records. Laplacian Eigenmaps of Recurrence Matrices (LERM) is one such technique, providing information about when fundamental shifts in climate dynamics have occurred. This is done by leveraging time delay embedding to construct a manifold that is mappable to the attractor of the climate system; this manifold can then be analyzed for significant dynamical transitions. Through numerical experiments with observed and synthetic data, LERM is applied to detect both gradual and abrupt regime transitions. Our paragon for gradual transitions is the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT). We observe that LERM is robust in detecting gradual MPT-like transitions for sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios, though it tends to occur towards the later stages of the transition. Our paragon of abrupt transitions is the 8.2ka event; we find that LERM is generally robust at detecting 8.2ka-like transitions for sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios, though edge effects become more influential. We conclude that LERM can usefully detect dynamical transitions in paleogeoscientific time series. An associated Python package is proposed to ease its use in the fields of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography.
Coarse-grained (> 3-5 µm) gray hematite particles occur at Vera Rubin ridge (VRR) within Gale crater, Mars. VRR has likely undergone multiple episodes of diagenesis, at least one of which resulted in the formation of gray hematite. The precursor mineralogy and nature of the diagenetic fluids that produced coarse-grained hematite remain unknown. Analog laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of iron(III) minerals to assess the potential fluid conditions and precursor mineralogy that form coarse-grained hematite. Gray hematite formed from the transformation of jarosite after 20 days at 200 ºC. Conversion was complete in chloride-rich fluids but substantial jarosite remained in sulfate-rich fluids; no transformations of jarosite occurred when aged at 98 °C. All other precursor minerals (akageneite, ferrihydrite, goethite, and schwertmannite) did not transform or produced only red, fine-grained hematite under all conditions assessed. In addition, seeding precursor iron(III) phases with red hematite and coarsening pre-existing red hematite both failed to produce gray hematite. These results suggest that jarosite was the precursor of gray hematite at VRR and the diagenetic fluids were low in sulfate and potentially chloride-rich. Jarosite produces gray hematite because the acidic conditions it generates yield both a low degree of hematite supersaturation, producing few nuclei, and high dissolved iron concentrations, enabling rapid hematite growth. Gray hematite readily forms under oxic conditions and its occurrence at VRR is not a marker for a redox interface. The associated diagenetic event was thus unlikely to have generated substantial new chemical energy for life.
The active deformation field in subduction forearcs provides critical information about the stress and strain state of the upper plate and its potential for seismogenesis. However, these properties are challenging to quantify in most subduction systems, and in the northern Cascadia forearc, few faults have been identified that can be used to reconstruct the upper plate deformation field. Here we investigate the slip history of the Beaufort Range fault (BRF) on Vancouver Island. This fault was proposed to host the 1946 M7.3 Vancouver Island earthquake, but no surface rupture or evidence of Quaternary activity has been documented, and the stress and strain conditions that promoted this event are poorly understood. We provide the first evidence that the BRF is active, using newly-collected lidar to map topographic scarps along the fault system and to reconstruct slip vectors from offset geomorphic markers. Quaternary deposits and landforms that show increasing magnitude of displacement with age provide evidence for at least three M ~6.5-7.5 earthquakes since ~15 ka, with the most recent event occurring <3-4 ka. Kinematic inversions of offset geomorphic markers show that the BRF accommodates right-lateral transtension along a steeply NE-dipping fault. This fault geometry and kinematics are similar to those modeled for the 1946 earthquake, suggesting that the BRF is a candidate source fault for this event. We find that the kinematics of the BRF are consistent over decadal to millennial timescales, suggesting that this portion of the northern Cascadia forearc has accommodated transtension over multiple earthquake cycles.
Climate change is one of the most serious challenges facing mankind. Sphagnum moss plays an important role in the carbon sink of peatland. Understanding the potential distribution of Sphagnum moss under climate change scenarios is critical for the conservation and rational exploitation of it. In this study, we divided the Hengduan Mountains (HDM) into east (EHDM) and west (WHDM) parts to see the difference between the whole and the parts, and understand the effects of integrity and connectivity of the landscape on species distribution. Since no enough occurrence data in EHDM, we applied the occurrence data in WHDM. Then, MaxEnt model was employed to predict the potential distribution of Sphagnum moss and computed the migratory paths of the distribution center points. We found precipitation in the coldest quarter, daily range of average temperature, isothermality and slope were the main factors affecting the suitable habitat for Sphagnum moss in HDM and WHDM. In HDM, the current potential suitable habitat is 2.6×104 km2, and will increase over 8 times and tend to shift northeastward and higher elevations in the future. In WHDM, the suitable area is 1.06×104 km2, but will decline exceeds 70% under most future climate scenarios, and tend to shift southward and lower elevations. Landscape integrity and connectivity have a great impact on the distribution of HDM Sphagnum moss species. Overall, our findings provide a reference for the conservation and management of Sphagnum moss.
The computational analysis of debris-flow dynamics and its impact on the structure, i.e., sabo dam, is a long-standing problem for hazard prevention. It is a complex problem that involves fluid-solid coupling and large deformation process of sabo dam, for which three-dimensional numerical simulation remains a scientific challenge until now. The smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and discrete element method (DEM) coupling model can enable the numerical simulation for the large deformation failure of sabo dam under debris-flow impact. For this purpose, built upon our previous Herschel-Bulkley-Papanastasiou (HBP) rheology-based 3D SPH model, the impact forces posed by debris-flow particles acting on the sabo dam are obtained. The sabo dam is modeled by a series of particles with relatively fixed positions in order to generate blocks for simulating their large deformation by DEM, wherein a nonlinear elastic-plastic bond model with a pre-defined bond strength degradation coefficient between DEM blocks is incorporated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed 3D SPH-DEM numerical coupling model, a simple pier failure case under debris-flow impact is simulated in prior, and the 2010 Yohutagawa debris-flow event, at Amami Oshima Island in Japan is selected as a case study, in which sabo dam with different bond strength degradation coefficients are tested. Results show that the proposed 3D SPH-DEM numerical model well simulates the fluid-solid coupling phenomenon and is able to explore the large deformation of the sabo dam with different strengths under debris-flow impact.
We present a machine learning based emulator of a microphysics scheme for condensation and precipitation processes (Zhao-Carr) used operationally in a global atmospheric forecast model (FV3GFS). Our tailored emulator architecture achieves high skill (≥94%) in predicting condensate and precipitation amounts and maintains low global-average bias (≤4%) for 1 year of continuous simulation when replacing the Fortran scheme. The stability and success of this emulator stems from key design decisions. By separating the emulation of condensation and precipitation processes, we can better enforce physical priors such as mass conservation and locality of condensation, and the vertical dependence of precipitation falling downward, using specific network architectures. An activity classifier for condensation imitates the discrete-continuous nature of the Fortran microphysics outputs (i.e., tendencies are identically zero where the scheme is inactive, and condensate is zero where clouds are fully evaporated). A temperature-scaled conditional loss function ensures accurate condensate adjustments for a high dynamic range of cloud types (e.g., cold, low-condensate cirrus clouds or warm, condensate-rich clouds). Despite excellent overall performance, the emulator exhibits some deficiencies in the uppermost model levels, leading to biases in the stratosphere. The emulator also has short episodic skill dropouts in isolated grid columns and is computationally slower than the original Fortran scheme. Nonetheless, our challenges and strategies should be applicable to the emulation of other microphysical schemes. More broadly, our work demonstrates that with suitable physically motivated architectural choices, ML techniques can accurately emulate complex human-designed parameterizations of fast physical processes central to weather and climate models.
Global climate change has greatly increased the drought duration, frequency, and severity of intermittent river ephemeral stream (IRES), affecting the microbial-mediated biogeochemical process. While there is limited information about the responses of community structure and ecosystem functions of benthic biofilms in IRES, especially under the increased drought duration. Here, we focused on the increased drought duration and summarized their effects on the structure and functions of benthic biofilms in IRES. First, the increased dehydration duration led to distinct effects on the α-diversity or β-diversity of benthic microbial communities. The interaction network should be considered in future research as they are essential to maintain biofilm structure and play key roles in the resistance and resilience in biofilm community recovery under hydrological stress. In addition, inconsistent response patterns of the fundamental functions, such as gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and functional enzymes activity of biofilms were discussed. Besides, the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) of biofilms in IRES deserve more attention due to that their emission flux of biofilms could be significantly altered after prolong dehydration duration with a huge pulse when rewetting. More important, it is ecosystem multifunctionality rather than a single function that needs to be fully considered when studying the microbial functions and the biogeochemical process mediated by biofilms in IRES under increased dehydration duration. Also, more research is needed at larger spatial and longer temporal scales to evaluate the effects from a more macro perspective for better understanding the ecological impacts of increased dehydration duration in IRES ecosystems.
Using 42 years of reanalysis data, we investigate regional, storm-relative environmental characteristics of three groups of Atlantic tropical cyclone intensification: slightly, moderately, and rapidly intensifying. Probability density functions are distinct between these groups for vertical wind shear, sea surface temperature (SST), and radius of maximum winds (RMW), but less so for relative humidity. In the Gulf of Mexico and southern North Atlantic, shear and RMW are good predictors. In the open Atlantic, north of 22°N, shear and SST are the best predictors. In the Caribbean, weaker relationships suggest low statistical predictability in a region where RI cases increased between 1980-2000 and 2001-2021. Of our storm-relative variables tested, increasing SST appear to be most closely connected to the 36% increase in rapidly intensifying events between the two periods, whereas shear and relative humidity are not significantly more favorable. The variability across regions, periods, and variables motivates further investigation.
In the summer of 2020, ESA changed the orbit of CryoSat-2 to align periodically with NASA’s ICESat-2 mission, a campaign known as CRYO2ICE, which allows for near-coincident CryoSat-2 and ICESat-2 observations in space and time over the Arctic. This study investigates the CRYO2ICE radar and laser freeboards acquired by CryoSat-2 and ICESat-2, respectively, during the full winter season of 2020–2021, and derives snow depths from their differences. As expected, the ICESat-2 signal is backscattered at a surface above the elevation of the CryoSat-2 signal. CRYO2ICE snow depths are thinner than the daily model- or passive-microwave-based snow depth composites used for comparison, where differences are most pronounced in the Atlantic and Pacific Arctic. These observations show the exciting potential for along-track dual-frequency observations of snow depth from the future Copernicus mission CRISTAL; but also highlight uncertainties in radar penetration and the length scales of snow topography that still require further research.