In our works we prove that the cumulation (self-focusing) of charged particles in a plasma (with current) is a universal property of cumulative-dissipative structures with characteristic sizes from 10-15 to 1027 m. In this work, we theoretically (Part 1) and experimentally (Part 2) we prove that shock waves of electric fields are focusing shells for plasma cumulative-dissipative positively charged plasma 3D structures. In the 1 Part of this work, we provide detailed theoretical justifications for the possibility of the existence of (locally self-focusing by ambipolar drift) Vysikaylo’ electric field shock waves caused by ambipolar diffusion due to a violation of the electrical neutrality of the plasma (in the presence of an electric current). Due to the greater mobility of electrons (ions are more massive), a structure with a positive space charge is formed in the electric field shock waves that self-form in the plasma (with current). Unlike Mach’ shock waves, in closed Vysikaylo’ shock waves transverse electric fields are generated due to the space charge. This makes the problem (in the shock wave region of the electric field) three-dimensional (in particular, spherically symmetric in this region). In Part 1, we will limit ourselves to the study of stationary one-dimensional profiles: 1) parameters in shock waves of the electric field and 2) processes of ambipolar drift, leading to local cumulation of positive charge in the shock wave of the electric field. In Part 1, the author will limit himself to obvious remarks arising from the properties of three-dimensional structures with a positive space charge. Based on laboratory 3D experiments (Part 2) and theoretical studies of gas-discharge plasma, we prove that ambipolar drift caused by different dependences of the mobility of electrons and positive ions in a simple plasma (with one type of ions) determines the dynamic processes of cumulation of plasma structures – 4D plasmoids in plasma (with current). 4D plasma structures are non-stationary three-dimensional structures. The author draws attention to self-formation in plasma structures (plasmoids) of stationary Vysikaylo’ plasma nozzles - analogues of Laval’ nozzles. A comparison of theoretical 1D and experimental 3D observations of discharge glow (this corresponds to changes in the main parameters) in gas discharge tubes will be presented in Part 2. In these experiments, a homogeneous plasma in a gas discharge tube is locally disturbed by a beam of fast electrons. This leads to the self-formation: 1) of electric field shock waves (a layer of positive volume charge) stopped by gas pumping and 2) of transition 3D profiles and Vysikaylo’ plasma 3D nozzles already in a quasi-neutral homogeneous plasma.
The world's leading laboratories continue intensive research into the properties of nanocomposites-materials that have unique, both physical and chemical properties that are useful in practice. Along with the discovery of new materials, new technologies are being developed and attempts are being made to create mathematical models capable of describing phenomena in hollow quantum resonators-quantum dots, lines, and other cumulative-dissipative 3D structures of nanometer dimensions. Mathematical models make it possible to develop new materials, classify their properties and discover new patterns. As a result of the study of nanocomposites, the author has discovered and classified more than 31 polarization quantum-size effects. In this paper, it is proved that only by applying the foundations of cumulative quantum mechanics (CQM) can one explain and classify all quantum-size effects discovered by the author. These quantum size effects led to the discovery of the principles of physical doping and the classification of doping into physical and chemical doping. During physical doping, the modification of the properties of the nanocomposite is carried out with the help of nano-and microstructures of foreign material, which have a high affinity for free electrons. In this case, the fractions of foreign (alloying, other) material do not penetrate into the crystal lattice. They only decorate the nano-or microcrystals of the support material in the nanocomposite. A dopant with a high affinity for free electrons is charged with a negative charge, while a doped nanocrystal is charged with a positive charge. Therefore, physical doping of nanocomposites leads to the generation of electric fields that act as catalysts for various reactions, contributes to the strengthening of nanocomposites by Coulomb compression, an increase in the luminescent properties of phosphors, an increase in conductivity up to 10 10 times, and other properties, due to quantum size effects due to local violation of electrical neutrality. The models we have developed, which are effective for explaining nano-effects, have been used by us to explain angstrom-and femto-phenomena in cumulative-dissipative structures.
We prove that a nonequilibrium inhomogeneous giant gas discharge is realized in the heliosphere with huge values of the parameter E/N, which determines the temperature of electrons. This quasi-stationary discharge determines the main parameters of the weak solar wind (SW) in the heliosphere. In connection with the development of space technologies and the human spacewalk, the problem of the nature of the SW is acute. The study of the interference of gravitational and electrical potentials at the Earth’s surface began with the work of Hilbert 1600. Such polarization effects – the interference of Coulomb and gravitational forces – have not been studied well enough even in the heliosphere. Our article is devoted to this problem. Pannekoek-Rosseland-Eddington model do not take into account the important role of highly energetic running (away from the Sun) electrons and, accordingly, the duality of electron fluxes. According to an alternative model formulated by we, highly energetic (escaping from the Sun) electrons leave the Sun and the heliosphere, and weakly energetic ones, unable to leave the Coulomb potential well (hole) – the positively charged Sun and the heliosphere, return to the Sun. The weak difference between the opposite currents of highly energetic (escaping from the Sun) electrons and weakly energetic (returning to the Sun) electrons is compensated by the current of positive ions and protons from the Sun – SW. These dynamic processes maintain a quasi-constant effective dynamic charge of the Sun and the entire heliosphere. At the same time, quasi-neutrality in the Sun and heliosphere is well performed up to 10-36. According to experiments and analytical calculations based on our model: 1) the plasma in the corona is nonequilibrium; 2) the maximum electron temperature is Te ~ 1-2 million degrees; 3) Te grows from 1000 km away from the Sun and 4) the role of highly energetic electrons escaping from the plasma leads to a significant increase in the effective: solar charge and electric fields in the heliosphere in relation to the Pannekoek-Rosseland-Eddington model. This is due to the absence of a compensation layer that screens the effective charge of the Sun. It is not formed at all due to the escape of highly energetic electrons (as in a conventional gas discharge) in the entire heliosphere with high temperatures exceeding the temperature of the Sun’s surface. Thus, the process of escape of highly energetic electrons forms the internal EMF of the entire heliosphere. Interference of gravitational and Coulomb potentials in the entire heliosphere is considered, it is being manifested in generation of two opposite flows of particles: 1) that are neutral or with a small charge (to the Sun), and 2) in the form of high-energy electrons (escaping from the positively charged Sun) and a solar wind (from the Sun). Calculated values of the registered ion parameters in the solar wind were compared with experimental observations. Reasons for generating the ring current in inhomogeneous heliosphere and inapplicability of the Debye theory in describing processes in the solar wind (plasma with current) are considered.