Inundation is increasing due to extreme weather conditions severely impacting the agricultural sector. Hence, inundation impact on crops and its monitoring is essential for policy and decision-makers to provide timely and precise reimbursement to farmers. This study attempts to estimate paddy crop (a major staple food cultivation of the world) yield under different inundations using multispectral imageries acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the subtropical region. A field experiment was carried out on paddy crop (MTU-1010) during the Kharif (monsoon) season of 2018 in the research farm of the Agricultural and Food Engineering (AgFE) Department, IIT Kharagpur, India. The experimental design consists of five different types of treatments i.e., treatment 1-20 cm standing water level was maintained for 10 days, treatment 2-20 cm (20 days), treatment 3-30 cm (10 days), treatment 4-30 cm (20 days) and treatment-5 (control)-5 cm standing water level maintained up to maturity stage with three replications. An in-house-quad copter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a multispectral camera was used to acquire the high-resolution imageries at different inundation periods. The acquired images were radiometrically calibrated and pre-processed using Pix4d-mapper software. Various spectral indices (such as NDVI, NGRDI, RVI, GRVI, NDRE, TNDVI etc.) were evaluated and compared with the different ground truth parameters (SPAD, green seeker). The yield of different treatments was also compared and correlated with the spectral indices. The yield was increased from treatment 1 to treatment 3 but decreased for treatment 4. The highest yield of 5.02 t/ha was observed for treatment 3, and treatment 1 was the lowest yield of 4.55 t/ha compared to the control treatment of 4.92 t/ha. The spectral reflectance of RVI and GRVI were observed to have similar response variations for different treatments with an increase in Days After Transplantation (DAT). The variations of yield and spatial maps generated using UAV-based multispectral imageries for the treatments will be helpful to government agencies for early estimation of yield due to flood inundation within the small farming fields. Ask a question or comment on this session (not intended for technical support questions). Have a question or comment? Enter it here.
Most studies on the impacts of extreme hydrometeorological events on hydrological processes have focused primarily on surface water systems rather than groundwater systems. This study explores and seeks to untangle the complex nature of groundwater dynamics and resilience across British Columbia (BC) in response to the 2021 heatwave-intensified drought and atmospheric rivers (ARs). Historically, there have been many episodic drought events along with substantially wet periods. However, 2021 marked an unprecedented year for the immediate co-occurrence of intense and extreme drought and deluge. This weather whiplash resulted in the lowest and highest groundwater levels on record for many wells across BC. The record meteorological drought, intensified by a 13-day heatwave in late June, affected the entire province and lasted for over 50 days in the south coast region. This was followed in November by the most intense ARs to make landfall on record in southwestern BC. Groundwater hydrograph anomalies for 2021 were computed relative to their short-term historical mean for 194 provincial observation wells across the province. The 2021 anomalies showed a limited but distinct range of responses to both the drought and ARs, and cluster into three response groups, largely associated with their respective hydroclimatic regime. Many coastal wells showed a strong response to drought; however, nearly all wells in the southern interior responded substantially, with groundwater levels significantly below their historical range by late summer. Presently, groundwater levels seem to have recovered across the province, especially on the coast. This resiliency is attributed in part to the ARs that made landfall since last year along with a particularly wet, La Niña winter. The majority of coastal wells showed a much stronger signal to the ARs compared to the interior or eastern BC wells, likely due to the more rapid and intense rainfall experienced in southwestern BC. Groundwater systems across BC were variably impacted by these hydrometeorological extremes, showcasing the need for focused and area-specific approaches to water allocation decisions in assuring sustainable withdrawal practices.
Temperature is a key physical variable in streams that controls rates of metabolic processes and oxygen availability, and therefore the suitability of aquatic ecosystems. During the summer low flow period, stream temperature can be moderated by contributions from cool water sources, such as groundwater discharge and higher elevation headwaters. However, the relative contribution of these cool water sources can be spatially and temporally varying, particularly in snowmelt-dominated, high-relief watersheds. In this study, in situ and remote sensing methods are used to measure the stream temperature along a low elevation section of the North Alouette River (British Columbia, Canada) that passes through a forested area and into an open agricultural area. The methods include temperature loggers placed at the stream surface and streambed interface, and thermal infrared images acquired using a drone and Landsat 8 and 9 satellites. The drone and in situ measurements of stream temperature show good agreement, while the satellite images show the same temperature distribution (cooler in the forested area and warmer downstream in the open agricultural area) but overall shifted temperatures. Areas of mixing of cool and warm waters are identified within the stream channel using the drone imagery. Waters samples analyzed for stable isotopes are used to identify the different source waters and estimate their relative contribution to stream temperature moderation. This fingerprinting is made possible by a precipitation isotope composition-elevation gradient in the catchment. The isotope data support the observations of mixing identified with the temperature data. Understanding of where and when cool water sources contribute to streamflow will be used to inform groundwater allocation decision-making, to ensure that groundwater pumping is minimized in areas where groundwater discharge is critical for moderating stream temperatures.
In the ocean, temperature extremes have adverse effects on precipitation patterns, sea level change, and migration/damage of ecosystems. It has been found that most species are more sensitive to extreme events like marine heatwaves (MHWs), implying the severe impacts of MHWs on ecology. These events are driven by various atmospheric and oceanic processes. In recent years, these extreme events are more frequent and intense globally and their increasing trend is expected to continue in the upcoming decades. They have the potential to devastate marine habitats, and ecosystems together with ensuing socioeconomic consequences. It recently attracted public interest and scientific researchers, which motivates us to analyze the recent MHW events in the Bay of Bengal region. we have isolated 107 MHW events (above the 90th percentile threshold) in this region of the Indian Ocean and investigated the variation in duration, intensity, and frequency of MHW events during our test period (1982-2021). Our study reveals that the average of three MHW events per year in the study region with an increasing linear trend of 1.11 MHW events per decade. In the analysis, we found the most intense event has a maximum intensity was 5.29°C (above the climatology mean), while the mean intensity was 2.03°C. In addition, we observed net heat flux accompanied by anticyclonic eddies to be the primary cause of these events. Also, an effort has been made to understand the relationship between climate modes, sea surface height, and the difference between evaporation and precipitation with the occurrence of MHW events.
The West African Monsoon (WAM) strongly drives precipitation variability and seasonality across continental West Africa and the tropical Eastern Atlantic. However, the evolution of the WAM in the late Cenozoic, in response to changes in vegetation, atmospheric CO 2 , orbital forcings, paleogeography, and orography as well as its teleconnections such as the mean location of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ), SubTropical Jet (STJ), Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) and low-level westerly flow is not well constrained. We contribute to understanding past WAM dynamics by performing high-resolution, time-specific paleoclimate simulation using General Circulation Model ECHAM5. We focus our analysis on the migration and intensification of the WAM and its associated atmospheric thermodynamic structure which influence the rainfall seasonality and patterns across the Sahel, Guinea Coast, and Sahara regions.
The Government of India announced its commitment to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2070 at the recent COP 26 summit. Modeling projections suggest that meeting this target would likely require substantial amounts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) from large-point sources (LPS). Our analysis first reveals the key co-benefits for India in the adoption of CCS, viz. energy security, lower aggregate costs of carbon mitigation, higher resilience and lower stranded assets. For instance, we estimate that stranding of >100 GW and >70 GW of coal- and gas-fired power capacity could be avoided with the presence of CCS in the power sector mix.This analysis is further supplemented by our recent estimates on CO2 storage potential estimates in Indian geologic formations. Our results indicate that the storage capacity via enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is 1.2 GtCO2 after incorporating engineering and geologic constraints. Similarly, the storage capacity in unminable coal fields is estimated to be 3.5-6.3 GtCO2. Even though the combined storage potential in these formations is constrained, they should be actively considered within policy-making as they predominantly lie within areas of dense areas of LPS, thus creating possibilities of CCS hubs and clusters. In addition, 291 GtCO2 could be sequestered in saline aquifers and 97-316 GtCO2 in basalts; though, these values are subject to higher uncertainties. A number of saline aquifers may be characterized as having storage potential equivalent to several years of LPS emissions (>10 GtCO2) along with high storage feasibility.Our ongoing analysis attempts a more evolved approach towards source-sink mapping in India by combining the storage potential estimates with geospatial layers of LPS. Large power plants, which emit >20 MtCO2 annually, and high-purity CO2 sources such as refineries, are of particular interest. Preliminary source-sink mapping results show substantial clustering opportunities in eastern India, which has active coalbed methane extraction undertaken by five companies, and western India, with large industrial sources interspersed with EOR sites. The results of this analysis will also inform decision-makers on future LPS siting opportunities if a policy thrust on CCS is undertaken for meeting net-zero targets over the next two decades.
A NASA sponsored study conducted at John Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab culminated in a community-inspired heliospheric mission concept called the Interstellar Probe (ISP). The ISP’s science goals include understanding our habitable astrosphere by investigating its interactions with the interstellar medium, and determining the structure, composition, and variability of its constituents. A suite of instruments were proposed to achieve these and other science objectives. The instruments include a Lyman-a spectrograph for velocity-resolved measurements of neutral H atoms. The capability to address key components of the ISP’s science objectives by utilizing high spectral resolution Lyman-a measurements are described in this presentation. These findings have been submitted as a community White Paper to the recent Heliophysics decadal survey.
Accurate estimates of the soil water balance components are critical for optimizing irrigation water use in agricultural fields. Estimates are normally obtained using simple water balance models and for representative areas, not taking into consideration the within variability of soil properties. In this study, we used the MOHID-Land distributed process-based model to compute the variability of the soil water balance components in a 23ha almond field located in southern Portugal, at a resolution of 5m. The main objective was the possible assessment of management zones for improving water productivity in that water-scarce region. An electromagnetic induction survey was carried out first to obtain electromagnetic conductivity images which provided the spatial distribution of the real soil electrical conductivity (ff) with depth. The spatial distribution of ff was then correlated to soil particle size distribution using an in-situ calibration. Afterward, pedotransfer functions were applied to define the soil hydraulic parameters necessary to run the distributed model and map the within soil variability at the field scale. Irrigation data was monitored on-site, at two locations, while weather data was extracted from a local meteorological station. The distributed modeling approach included the definition of potential evapotranspiration fluxes computed from the product of the reference evapotranspiration obtained according to the FAO56 Penman-Monteith equation and a crop coefficient for each stage of almond’s growing season, the variable-saturated flow using the Richards equation, and root zone water stress following a macroscopic approach. Modeling results were used to present the maps of the variability of the seasonal actual crop transpiration and soil evaporation, the mean soil moisture, seasonal runoff, and seasonal percolation. Then, management zones for improving irrigation water use in the studied almond field were proposed.
Plant roots are responsible for essential functions like nutrient uptake, anchorage, and storage. Study of root uptake mechanisms for macro nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur is vital to our understanding of their role in plant growth and development. Small signaling peptides (SSPs), are hormones which regulate diverse plant developmental processes including root growth. However, their involvement in regulation of nutrient uptake by roots is poorly understood. We recently developed a hydroponics- based plant growth system which combines ion chromatography with synthetic peptide application, to analyze the depletion rates of nutrients by Medicago truncatula roots. Application of the synthetic SSP MtCEP1 and AtCEP1 led to enhanced uptake of nitrates, sulphates, and phosphates. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism of nutrient uptake mediated by these peptides, we conducted an RNAseq of M. truncatula roots treated with the peptides. A differential gene expression analysis revealed thousands of peptide responsive genes. Several known nitrate transporters and a sulphate transporter AtSULTR3:5-like gene showed enhanced expression under both, MtCEP1 and AtCEP1 peptide application. Multiple, as of yet uncharacterized, CEP peptide responsive pathway regulatory genes such as kinases and transcription factors were also identified through this transcriptomic analysis. This study highlights the potential of phenomics enabled biology to uncover target genes for improving agriculturally important traits such as nutrient uptake.
Vegetation acts as a critical link between the geosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere, regulating the flux of water to the atmosphere via transpiration (E) and the input of carbon from the atmosphere to plants and soil via photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A). The rate of A is known to be seasonally dynamic, however, few studies have investigated how the ratio between E and A, known as the water use efficiency (WUE), changes with phenology. WUE directly impacts regional to global carbon and water cycles and lack of knowledge regarding the dynamics of WUE remains among the largest uncertainties in current earth system model (ESM) projections of carbon and water exchange in temperate forests. Here we attempt to reduce this knowledge gap by studying these dynamics across a range of eight deciduous tree species common to temperate forests of North America. Using gas exchange and spectroscopic measurements, we investigated seasonal patterns in leaf level physiological, biochemical, and anatomical properties, including the seasonal progress of WUE and foliar capacity for carbon assimilation, which corollate with seasonal leaf phenology. We incorporate these findings into a modeling framework that contains the same representation of A, E, and canopy scaling found in ESMs to explore the impact of parameterization, which tracks phenological status, on model forecasts. Our results indicate that both photosynthetic capacity and WUE are seasonally dynamic processes which are not synchronized. WUE increased from a minimum at leaf out toward a more conservative behavior at the mid-summer growth peak. This pattern was explained by a decreased stomatal aperture and a decrease in cuticular leakage with leaf aging. We also observed a seasonal increase in maximum carboxylation capacity, with maximum rates of A and modeled tree net primary productivity (NPP) occurring later toward the end of the summer. This change was primarily driven by an increase in foliar nitrogen content, and a shift in the ratio of Vcmax to Jmax between expanding and mature leaves. By applying our revised parameterization, which captures seasonal dynamics of gas exchange, into our model framework we aim to improve the process representation of leaf function in a temperate forest, and more faithfully represent dynamics of NPP and E in the early and late growth season.
We present evidence of damping of equatorial noise due to Finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effect in the inner Van Allen belt. Detail observation of the FLR phenomenon in the inner belt region has not been reported until now. Waves primarily damped by the FLR mechanism can influence the energy dependent proton density structure. We analyze a typical case recorded by the Van Allen probe that involves FLR damping of equatorial noise, which was propagating radially towards the Earth, at L-shell ~1.7. As a result of this damping, protons in the energy range of ~18 – 21 MeV at L-shell ~1.7 – 2 get energized. This kind of wave-particle interaction should be included in the future models of the inner Van Allen belt. This phenomenon may also account for the unknown proton loss mechanism reported in Selesnick and Albert (2019).
A cloud event in the altitude range of 53-65 km was observed with lidars over Yanqing (40.5°N, 116°E) and Pingquan (41°N, 118.7°E) on 30 October 2018. Clouds with a multilayer structure first occurred within the line view of lidar at dawn (03:40-06:00LT). They were faint and tenuous, and the maximum volume backscatter coefficient (VBSC) was 1.4×10-10m-1sr-1. At twilight, clouds with multilayer structures were reobserved via lidars, but they became much thicker, with a maximum VBSC of 11.2×10-10m-1sr-1. The structure of the cloud layers varied with time, and they faded completely at approximately ~00:30 LT (+1 day). Measurements from SABER/TIMED were utilized for analysis, and it was found that before the onset of cloud event, a temperature anomaly occurred in the mesosphere over Beijing, and water vapor was also very abundant. The frost point temperature profile of water vapor was estimated, and lidar measurements showed that the atmospheric temperature was close to the frost point of water vapor in the vicinity of the stratopause when the mesosphere was undergoing a low-temperature phase. It was a rare mesospheric cloud event observed with lidars at rather low latitudes, and the clouds probably resulted from the nucleation of saturated water vapor due to the occurrence of a temperature anomaly in the mesosphere.
[This presentation is published at https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1703.12317] Dead organic matter (DOM), which consists of leaf litter, fine woody debris (FWD; < 3 cm diameter), downed coarse woody debris (CWDlog), and standing or suspended coarse woody debris (CWDsnag), plays a crucial role in forest carbon cycling. However, the contributions of each DOM type on stand-scale carbon storage (necromass) and stand-scale CO2 efflux (Rstand) estimates are not well understood. In addition, there is little knowledge of the effect of each DOM type on the accuracy of stand-scale estimates of total necromass and Rstand. This study investigated characteristics of necromass and Rstand from DOM in a subtropical forest in Okinawa island, Japan, to quantify the effect of each DOM type on total necromass, total Rstand, and estimate error of total necromass and Rstand. The CWDsnag accounted for the highest proportion (54%) of total necromass (1499.7 g C m–2), followed by CWDlog (24%), FWD (11%), and leaf litter (11%). Leaf litter accounted for the highest proportion (37%) of total Rstand (340.6 g C m–2 yr–1), followed by CWDsnag (25%), CWDlog (20%), and FWD (17%). The CWDsnag was distributed locally with 173% of the coefficient of variation for necromass, which was approximately two times higher than those of leaf litter and FWD (72–73%). Our spatial analysis revealed, for accurate estimates of CWDsnag and CWDlog necromass, sampling areas of ≥ 28750 m2 and ≥ 2058‒42875 m2 were required, respectively, under the condition of 95% confidence level and 0.1 of accepted error. In summary, CWD considerably contributed to stand-scale carbon storage and efflux in this subtropical forest, resulting in a major source of errors in the stand-scale estimates. In forests where frequent tree death is likely to occur, necromass and Rstand of CWD are not negligible in considering the carbon cycling as in this study, and therefore need to be estimated accurately.