Daniel Mutavi Katumo1,2,4*, Jacob Muinde1,3,5, Emmanuel Nyongesa Waswa1,4,7 Biogeographic deconstruction of phylogenetic and functional diversity provides insights into the formation of regional assemblages College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.State Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China.Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, ChinaUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049, ChinaWuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, Chinamutavidaniel@firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Abstract The global culture has been significantly impacted by globalization. In this paper, the effects of globalization on culture are examined, including the increasing regional cultural integration brought about by the development of a new common language, the rise in cultural diversity, the blending of different cultures, Westernization, and alterations in family composition and structure. Globalization has given people and corporations many chances and advantages, but it has also brought about severe issues including inequality, cultural deterioration, and environmental degradation. Promoting diversity, equity, and communication is therefore essential, as it addresses the detrimental consequences of globalization on culture and society.Globalization has, in general, had a complicated and multidimensional impact on culture, touching many different facets of people's life. Recognizing both the advantages and disadvantages of globalization is crucial, and efforts should be made to build a more varied and equal world community.While embracing new possibilities for cultural exchange and innovation, efforts should be taken to preserve old cultural traditions and values. Promoting cultural knowledge and understanding can also aid in bridging cultural gaps and creating a more unified global community. In order to ensure a sustainable and inclusive future, it is important to carefully analyze the substantial effects of globalization on culture. 1. IntroductionGlobalization has a profound effect on the global society and its impact is felt in many aspects of life (Shukla & Pandey, 2023). Globalization is the process of increasing economic, social, and cultural connectivity and integration on a global scale (Lang, 2006). International trade, cross-border investment, migration, and cultural interchange have increased as a result of globalization (Barış, 2023). Likewise, multinational firms, global supply chains, and a worldwide division of labor have all grown as a result of globalization (Aluko & Opoku, 2022). Consequently, countries can now specialize in particular products and services, which boosts productivity and efficiency. This can lead to economic expansion through job creation, especially in developing countries (Barış, 2023).While globalization has created many opportunities and advantages for people and businesses, it has also led to serious problems including inequality (Carneiro & Traiberman, 2023), cultural erosion (Allred, Harris, Zaman, et al., 2022), and environmental destruction (Fischer, 2003; Karaduman, 2022). In this work, we aim to exclusively discuss the impacts of globalization on local cultures. Moreover, we argue towards striking balance and fostering local cultures from negative impacts of globalization. Finally, we make practical recommendations that are likely to bring about resilience of valuable local customs amidst inevitable trends of westernization. .2. Impacts of globalization on cultureCulture has been significantly impacted by globalization in different ways.a. Globalization has increased regional cultural integration through a new common languageLanguage is an important component of culture since it contributes to the definition of a community’s cultural identity. It affects how people interact with one another, communicates, and think (Ojoo, 2023). Moreover, language serves as a means of expressing and maintaining cultural heritage and reflects values, customs, and beliefs (Zajda, 2023). For instance, in many cultures, language and the sense of identity are closely intertwined. The ability to speak a certain language is frequently seen as a sign of membership in a particular group.The English language has become the most widely spoken language in the world thanks to globalization (Farmonovna, 2023), which has made it easier for people from many cultures to communicate with one another. As a result, chances for regional and continental integration have increased, bringing together people from various cultural backgrounds and perspectives. A common language opens opportunities for intercultural marriages which have a profound effect on local culture (Barinova, Barinova, & Kim, 2023). Additionally, the widespread use of English is fostering cross-cultural communication and connecting an ever-widening range of global communities, creating a wealth of chances for understanding and cooperation on a global scale.b. Globalization has led to an increase in cultural diversityThe diversity of cultures has increased as a result of globalization. People have been exposed to a variety of civilizations as a result of the spread of cultures from diverse regions of the world.The process of globalization has brought about an increase in the exposure of people to diverse cultures from around the world. This has led to a significant rise in the variety of musical genres and fusions. With the help of technology and digital platforms, musicians can now collaborate with other artists, share their work, and reach audiences from different parts of the world. For instance, Bourreau, Moreau, and Wikström (2022) found that the emergence of audio streaming services has resulted in a considerable increase in the diversity of music genres in the industry. This has been a positive impact of globalization on cultural content.Moreover, globalization has also led to an increase in the diversity of food options available in various parts of the world. The proliferation of cuisines from different regions has given rise to new culinary innovations and fusions. However, there are concerns about the sustainability and authenticity of food production, as well as the potential negative effects of culturally unfamiliar food on native diets and health. Stalmirska (2023) argues that for local populations to improve the variety of cuisines available in their regions, they need to change their attitudes toward foods from other cultures. Despite this, recent research has shown that many people still value the authenticity and traditional components of their local cuisine (Feldman & Wunderlich, 2023).c. Globalization has led to cultural hybridizationThe effects of globalization on local communities’ cultural trajectories have been the subject of extensive research (Billig, 2023; Bondar, 2023). The historical systems of ideas and practices, as well as other aspects of culture, are greatly influenced by globalization. The blending of various civilizations has led to the creation of new cultures. As a result, new cultural fusions that are wholly original have emerged. India, for example, has undergone cultural fusion as a result of its postcolonial history (Rumsey, 2023). As an illustration, varying migrant pathways in Goa influenced religious and cultural identities (see Rumsey, 2023). According to a recent study, globalization can be a powerful instrument for integrating foreign cultures into local society through advancing media technology (Kamran, Bhutta, Shamshad, et al., 2023). In contrast to older people, authors discovered that the younger generation in society is more prone to adopt foreign cultures. This shows that the globalization index will continue to increase with time thus a need for global societies to learn how to cope to prevent extreme cultural homogenization that may have detrimental impacts on local cultures.Historically, Arabic and indigenous Bantu speakers coexisted, resulting in the creation of Swahili culture along East Africa’s Indian Ocean coastline (Wangila, 2023). This historical illustration shows how cultural hybridization as a result of globalization is key in producing new cultures. However, the emergence of new cultures is viable where people from different cultures interact in large numbers with a language limitation. The online translation platforms and availability of common languages that are currently available may prevent the creation of new cultures. This is reasonable because language is vital in the creation and maintenance of cultures (Farmonovna, 2023).d. Globalization has led to WesternizationGlobalization has led to the spread of Western culture, which has presented challenges to traditional beliefs and values. This has resulted in the emergence of new societal norms and discussions (Kanu & Igboechesi, 2023). Researchers and the general public have debated issues such as human rights and democratic government. However, concerns have also arisen about the influence of Western values on local cultures and the possible degradation of traditional beliefs and practices, including attire, cuisine, and ways of living.Studies have shown that Western culture has had an impact on other cultures worldwide. For example, Shukla and Pandey (2023) claim that Indian customs and rituals have lost some of their influence due to globalization. The strict regulation of gender segregation, which was deeply rooted in Indian culture, has become less prevalent. This has made it easier for young people to interact with one another, which has led to changes in Indian philosophy, increasing the importance of physical relationships among young people. Similarly, other cultures, such as those in Africa, have been affected by Westernization (Kanu & Igboechesi, 2023). Some countries in Asia have responded to this by actively promoting their cultures through cultural education for young people (Lim, 2023).The influence of Western music has also spread globally due to globalization. In India, for instance, Western music has gained popularity among young people, resulting in the emergence of a youth subculture (Laskar, 2023). However, there are still differences in music preferences among young people from rural and urban areas, with rural youth having stronger attachments to regional and local music. This phenomenon may also lead to the development of a hybrid music style combining local and Western cultural elements.Traditional oath systems for justice, which existed in many communities globally, have been impacted by globalization. In many African cultures, the traditional oath system helped to foster unity and justice within the community (Uwaezuoke & Udominyang, 2023). However, the spread of Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam in Africa, along with the adoption of formal legal systems, has challenged traditional belief systems.In summary, globalization has fostered the spread of Western culture, which has presented both opportunities and challenges for local cultures. While some cultures have embraced Westernization, others have responded by promoting their traditional values and beliefs.e. Globalization has affected the family composition and structureThe traditional family unit and social relationships have been disrupted by globalization, especially in Africa (Kanu & Igboechesi, 2023). People are moving away from the traditional polygamous and extended family structure and becoming more independent and autonomous. People may now relocate more easily, which has increased the number of international marriages, multicultural families, and children. It also prompts worries about the decline of family traditions and values, and cultural confrontations between various family cultures (see Shukla & Pandey 2023). 3. Recommendations Raising awareness of the erosion of cultural heritage within local communities is crucial in preventing the negative impacts of globalization on local cultures. To preserve the local cultures that hold significant value to specific communities, cultural education should be introduced as part of the primary and secondary school curriculum. Governments must also take an active role in incentivizing the preservation of local cultures. This can be done by creating platforms that facilitate maintenance of local cultures such as establishing national cultural days, supporting cultural education and research, and funding cultural-based organizations and events. By prioritizing the restoration of local cultures, we can create an environment that celebrates the diversity of cultural heritage and preserves it for future generations.