Hilal ERDOGAN1*, Pelin OZMEN 2, Hayrun Nisa BULBUL31 Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics, Nevsehir, Turkiye. ORCID: 0000-0001-5219-46932 Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Basic Sciences, Department of Medical Microbiology, Nevsehir, Turkiye. ORCID: 0000-0001-9496-30323 Nevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University, Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Nevsehir, Turkiye. ORCID: 0000-0001-6843-417x* Corresponding authorCorrespondence author: Hilal ERDOGANNevsehir Haci Bektas Veli University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics, 2000 Evler Mah. Zübeyde Hanım Cad. 50300, Nevşehir/Turkiye. Email:email@example.comTel: +90 (384) 228 10 00-22009ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5219-4693Acknowledgments: The authors deny any conflicts of interestFunding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.All authors have contributed significantly, and all authors are in agreement with the manuscript.
Freeboardelevation of a structure above the base flood elevation (BFE)is a critical component in mitigating or avoiding flood losses. However, the unrevealed benefits and savings of freeboard installation have prevented communities from adopting this approach. To improve decision-making for flood-vulnerable communities and enhance flood risk mitigation strategies, this study presents the methodology underlying a new webtool, FloodSafeHome, that estimates comprehensively the economic benefits and savings of freeboard installation for new construction of residential buildings. Specifically, the proposed evaluation framework has been designed to calculate monthly savings for individual buildings by assessing freeboard cost, insurance savings per year, and expected annual flood loss. This new evaluation method is built into a web-based, decision-making tool for use by the public and community leaders in three southeastern Louisiana parishes, to identify expected future benefits of building residences with freeboard and enhance their decision-making processes with interactive risk/benefit analysis features. For example, results indicate the levels of freeboard that optimize the costbenefit ratio for flood-insured homes in the study area. This approach is expected to improve long-term flood resilience and provide cost-efficient flood mitigation strategies particularly in disaster vulnerable regions.
To integrate temporal and spatial dimensions of seasonal cycles, we combine two conceptual frameworks: ecological calendars and the “3Hs” model of the biocultural ethic. The latter values the vital links between human and other-than-human co-inhabitants, their life habits (e.g., cultural practices of human communities or life cycles of other-than-human species) and the structure, patterns and processes of their shared habitats. This integration enhances an understanding of core links between cultural practices and the life cycles of biocultural keystone species. As a synthesis, we use the term biocultural calendars to emphasize the co-constitutive nature of calendars that result from continuous interactions between dynamic biophysical and cultural processes. We apply biocultural calendars to examine cultural practices and socio-environmental changes in southwestern South America, specifically in Chile, spanning from (1) Cape Horn at the southern of the Americas in sub-Antarctic habitats inhabited by the Yagan indigenous community, (2) artisanal fisher communities in Chiloe; archipelagoes, (3) coastal regions of central-southern Chile inhabited by Lafkenche and Williche indigenous communities, to (4) high Andean habitats in northern Chile co-inhabited by Aymara communities along with domesticated camelids and a rich biodiversity. To illustrate biocultural calendars, we designed analemma diagrams that show the position of the Sun in the sky as seen from a fixed time and location, and linked to continuous renewal of astronomical, biological and cultural, seasonal cycles that sustain life. These biocultural calendars enhance the integration of indigenous and scientific knowledge to confront complex challenges of climate change faced by local communities and global society.
Earth Observations (EO) systems aim to monitor nearly all aspects of the global Earth environment. Observations of Essential Water Variables (EWVs) together with advanced data assimilation models, could provide the basis for systems that deliver integrated information for operational and policy level decision making that supports the Water-Energy-Food-Nexus (EO4WEF), and concurrently the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Implementing integrated EO for GEO-WEF (EO4WEF) systems requires resolving key questions regarding the selection and standardization of priority variables, the specification of technologically feasible observational requirements, and a template for integrated data sets. This paper presents a concise summary of EWVs adapted from the GEO Global Water Sustainability (GEOGLOWS) Initiative and consolidated EO observational requirements derived from the GEO Water Strategy Report (WSR). The UN-SDGs implicitly incorporate several other Frameworks and Conventions such as The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction; The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands; and the Aichi Convention on Biological Diversity. Primary and Supplemental EWVs that support WEF Nexus & UN-SDGs, and Climate Change are specified. The EO-based decision-making sectors considered include water resources; water quality; water stress and water use efficiency; urban water management; disaster resilience; food security, sustainable agriculture; clean & renewable energy; climate change adaptation & mitigation; biodiversity & ecosystem sustainability; weather and climate extremes (e.g., floods, droughts, and heat waves); transboundary WEF policy.
A study was conducted in none tilled coffee agroforestry fields of Eastern Uganda to understand the effects of application of inorganic fertilizers on soil nutrient loss in form of gas for mitigation of unsustainable agricultural practices. This study specifically i) assessed the effect of application of inorganic fertilizers on greenhouse gas emissions, ii) determined their effect on microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus and iii) determined their effect on leaf litter decomposition under Albizzia-coffee growing systems of the Mount Elgon. Soil gas emissions were measured with the static chamber method for twelve months in a field experiment with five different fertilizer treatments. The effect of treatments was separated using ANOVA in Genstat discovery version 13. Microbial carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus was separated using Mann-Whitney U test. Results showed that annual emissions ranged from 19.6 to 26.1 (t C/ha/yr), 3.5 to 9 (Kg N/ha/yr) and 6.9 to 9.2 (Kg C/ha/yr) for carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane respectively. Significant effects on soil emissions only occurred for nitrous oxide (P=0.017), microbial carbon (p=0.001) and microbial phosphorus (p<0.001) for the study period. The mixture of NPK fertilizers presented the lowest carbon dioxide loss and application of TSP presented the lowest nitrous oxide emission from soil. This study underscores the need for establishment of long-term experiments across several agro-ecological zones to confirm farmers’ perceptions of their soil fertility levels and ascertain the contribution of farm practices towards the retention of nutrients in the soil with minimal emission, to inform decisions of small holder farmers, policy and development partners for sustainable production.
Recent years have witnessed devastating weather extremes, so it is no surprise that people have started wondering, “what’s up with the weather?” The potential role of climate change in making these extremes worse has gained traction not only in the scientific community but in public discourse a well. While scientists have made considerable progress on statistical “climate attribution”—a way of assessing the probability that climate change is influencing the character of some extreme weather events—public understanding has not kept pace. However, members of society do not need to know everything about climate and its related changes to make decisions. Rather, building climate literacy across society is paramount to better inform those decisions. There are many facets of climate literacy and many ways to help society become comfortable with the concepts. While riddled with challenges, one way of explaining the statistical methods around climate attribution is through carefully designed spinner boards. This is just one demonstration of how to explain a difficult subject, and if properly developed and used, this method holds the potential to significantly improve climate literacy.
Poem to imagine the “essence” of water as it circulates through the Earth universe, synergistically supporting all environments and living ecosystems, forming, and shaping land and life. The poem links key elements of the interactive global water cycle and international programs to sustainably manage natural, and socioeconomic resources, given the challenge of climate change. It is in awareness of: –Essential Water Variables (EWVs) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Water Sustainability (GEOGLOWS) initiative; Earth Observations (EO) for the Water-Energy-Food Nexus (EO4WEF) community activity; UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs), UNFCCC–Climate Change. The poem hopes to bring water to the forefront of consciousness. Readers are invited to comment on the intangible “feelings” evoked by the poem.
The various extreme weather events that occurred globally in 2021, from Europe to China to North America, served as yet another reminder that robust strategies for climate adaptation are crucial at a time of rapid global warming. Building resilient communities and lessening the impact that natural disasters have on vulnerable infrastructure can be aided by automated systems driven by machine learning algorithms trained on Earth observation data. When deployed, computer vision models can analyze satellite imagery in real time and inform decision makers and nongovernmental organizations about the timely and targeted allocation of resources and humanitarian aid personnel to affected areas. Here, we overview several specific 2021 extreme events and the factors that caused the loss of life, damage to infrastructure, and economic loss. The events surveyed include flooding in Germany, wildfires in Greece, and Hurricane Ida in the Eastern United States. Taking this information into account, we further discuss barriers to the large-scale deployment of current machine learning technologies, especially models trained on Earth observation data. We examine the limitations of satellite imagery and big data applications in detecting damage and building collapse and how Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) can be a tool to resolve existing issues. The aim of this work is to understand why many state-of-the-art models being developed have not yet been successfully and extensively deployed in the real world and to foster discussion about optimizing the use of deep learning technology to save lives and lead effective disaster management efforts.
Environmental justice and equity should include access to clean water for all. It is expensive to drill borehole wells, typically over $10,000 US dollars, and so organizations working to provide wells in developing countries have typically installed community wells at some common gathering place. This requires that many users must walk long distances to access these water sources. This limits the quantity of water available to a family, and also creates vulnerabilities for the family member, usually a woman or child, sent for the water since the journey is often made early in the morning or at night in the dark. I have been drilling wells with a Kenyan team since 2010 using a simple, manual percussion hydraulic method developed by WaterForAllinternational.org whereby we can install a well generally for less than $200 US dollars excluding labor. Through their own participation in the drilling process, this low-cost enables families to pay for and drill their own well. In this way, they gain access to a much larger supply of water at or close to home, and eliminate the need and vulnerability associated with walking long distances to procure water for their family. Both the drilling apparatus and the cased well, including the pump, is constructed from materials available off-the-shelf at local hardware stores. Over the years I have made several modifications to the pump design, other infrastructure, and manufacturing process to improve the longevity, simplicity, and interchangeability of the final product. The drilling method is primarily applicable to aquifers lying above bedrock and it is feasible to drill wells to a depth of several hundred feet. The greatest challenge in the endeavor is earning the trust and cultivating the participation of the local community. This presentation will address the drilling process, the well infrastructure, and some socio-cultural aspects of the project.
As an important anthropogenic interference on the water cycle, reservoir operation behavior remains challenging to be properly represented in hydrologic models, thus limiting the capability of predicting streamflow under the interactions between hydrologic variability and operational preferences. Data-driven models provide a promising approach to represent reservoir operation rules by capturing relationships embedded in historical records. Similar to hydrologic processes vary across temporal scales, reservoir operations manifest themselves at different timescales, prioritizing different targets to mitigate streamflow variability at a given time scale. To capture interactions of reservoir operations across time scales, we proposed a hierarchical temporal scale framework to investigate the behaviors of over 300 major reservoirs across the Contiguous United States with a wide range of streamflow conditions. Machine learning models were constructed to simulate reservoir operation at daily, weekly, and monthly scales, where decisions at short-term scales interact with long-term decisions. We found that the hierarchical temporal scale configuration better captures reservoir releases than models constructed at a single time scale, especially for reservoirs with multiple operation targets. Model-based sensitivity analysis shows that for more than one third of the studied reservoirs, the release schemes, as a function of decision variables, vary at different time scales, suggesting that operators are commonly faced with complicated trade-offs to serve multiple purposes. The proposed hierarchical temporal scale approach is flexible to incorporate various data-driven models and decision variables to derive reservoir operation rule, providing a robust framework to understand the feedbacks between natural streamflow variability and human interferences across time scales.
Impact evaluation (IE) of large infrastructure presents numerous challenges, and investments in urban piped water and sanitation are no exception. Here we present methods for more systematic assessment of the implications of such interventions, discussing tradeoffs between validity, relevance and practicality that arise from alternative approaches. Then, to more clearly illustrate the many issues that typically arise in such IEs, we draw on an example application in Zarqa, Jordan, where the Millennium Challenge Corporation invested about US$275 million to upgrade and extend piped water and sewer networks, as well as increase the capacity of the country’s largest wastewater treatment plant. The theory of change for the intervention took a systems view of impacts: the project aimed to improve water supply to urban areas while maintaining flows to irrigators through enhanced wastewater reuse. The case adds valuable evidence on the impacts of large infrastructure investments and illustrates well the challenges of capturing spillovers, mitigating study contamination, maintaining statistical power, and determining overall welfare effects, in situations involving diverse market and nonmarket impacts. These limitations notwithstanding, the case highlights the high value of conducting IEs, and why applied researchers should not give up on pragmatic and interdisciplinary collaborations to evaluation in the face of complex interventions.
Holistic approaches are needed to investigate the capacity of current water resource operations and infrastructure to sustain water supply and critical ecosystem health under projected drought conditions. Drought vulnerability is complex, dynamic, and challenging to assess, requiring simultaneous consideration of changing water demand, use and management, hydrologic system response, and water quality. We are bringing together a community of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Department of Energy, and Cornell University to create an integrated human-hydro-terrestrial modeling framework, linking pre-existing models, that can explore and synthesize system response and vulnerability to drought in the Delaware River Basin (DRB). The DRB provides drinking water to over 15 million people in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Critical water management decisions within the system are coordinated through the Delaware River Basin Commission and must meet requirements set by prior litigation. New York City has rights to divert water from the upper basin for water supply but must manage reservoir releases to meet downstream flow and temperature targets. The Office of the Delaware River Master administers provisions of the Flexible Flow Management Program designed to manage reservoir releases to meet water supply demands, habitat, and specified downstream minimum flows to repel upstream movement of saltwater in the estuary that threatens Philadelphia public water supply and other infrastructure. The DRB weathered a major drought in the 1960s, but water resource managers do not know if current operations and water demands can be sustained during a future drought of comparable magnitude. The integrated human-hydro-terrestrial modeling framework will be used to identify water supply and ecosystem vulnerabilities to drought and will characterize system function and evolution during and after periods of drought stress. Models will be forced with consistent input data sets representing scenarios of past, present, and future conditions. The approaches used to unify and harmonize diverse data sets and open-source models will provide a roadmap for the broader community to replicate and extend to other water resource issues and regions.
The cryptocurrency sector is increasingly integrated into the global financial system. The world’s transition to a digital economy, facilitated by major technological breakthroughs, has several benefits. But as the demand for exchanging and investing in digital currencies is growing , the world must pay careful attention to the hidden and overlooked environmental impacts of this growth. The dramatic increase in the price of Bitcoin (BTC) over the last year and the resulting global race for BTC mining is turning the cryptocurrency market turning into one of the world’s leading polluting sectors. Yet, our knowledge about the environmental footprints of mining BTC is very limited. To address this hap, this study provides the first estimates of the carbon, water and land footprints of BTC mining around the world.
Monitoring nighttime light (NTL) change enables us to quantitatively analyze the dynamic patterns of human activity and socioeconomic features. NASA’s Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) atmospheric- and Lunar-BRDF-corrected Black Marble product (VNP46A2) provides daily global nighttime radiances with high temporal consistency. However, timely and continuous monitoring of NTL changes based on the dense daily DNB time series is still lacking. In this study, we proposed a novel Viewing Zenith Angle (VZA) stratified COntinuous monitoring of Land Disturbance (COLD) algorithm (VZA-COLD) to detect NTL change at 15 arc-second spatial resolution with daily updating capability based on NASA’s Black Marble products. Specifically, we divided the clear observations into four VZA intervals (0–20°, 20°–40°, 40°–60°, and 0–60°) to mitigate the temporal variation of the NTL data caused by the combined angular effects of viewing geometry and the complex surface conditions (e.g., building heights, vegetation canopy covers, etc.). Single-term harmonic models were continuously estimated for new observations from each VZA interval, and by comparing the model predictions with the actual DNB observations, a unified set of NTL changes can be captured continuously among the different VZA intervals. The final NTL change maps were generated after excluding the consistent dark pixels. Results showed that the VZA-COLD algorithm reduced the DNB data temporal variations caused by disparities among different viewing angles and surface conditions, and successfully detected NTL changes for six globally distributed test sites with an overall accuracy of 99.71%, a user’s accuracy of 87.18%, and a producer’s accuracy of 68.88% for the NTL change category.
Urban overheating, driven by global climate change and urban development, is a major contemporary challenge which substantially impacts urban livability and sustainability. Overheating represents a multi-faceted threat to well-being, performance, and health of individuals as well as the energy efficiency and economy of cities, and it is influenced by complex interactions between building, city, and global scale climates. In recent decades, extensive discipline-specific research has characterized urban heat and assessed its implications on human life, including ongoing efforts to bridge neighboring disciplines. The research horizon now encompasses complex problems involving a wide range of disciplines, and therefore comprehensive and integrated assessments are needed that address such interdisciplinarity. Here, the objective is to go beyond a review of existing literature and provide a broad overview and future outlook for integrated assessments of urban overheating, defining holistic pathways for addressing the impacts on human life. We (i) detail the characterization of heat exposure across different scales and in various disciplines, (ii) identify individual sensitivities to urban overheating that increase vulnerability and cause adverse impacts in different populations, (iii) elaborate on adaptive capacities that individuals and cities can adopt, (iv) document the impacts of urban overheating on health and energy, and (v) discuss frontiers of theoretical and applied urban climatology, built environment design, and governance toward reduction of heat exposure and vulnerability at various scales. The most critical challenges in future research and application are identified, targeting both the gaps and the need for greater integration in overheating assessments.