Soil respiration represents one of the dominant fluxes of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere, therefore, it is important to understand how it is controlled across a wide variety of sites. As part of developing a soil respiration data product based on freely available National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) data, soil respiration rates were calculated at 30 sites throughout the USA (from Puerto Rico to North Dakota and Virginia to California) to investigate controls on soil respiration at a continental scale. The sites spanned a wide range of ecosystems, including deserts, grasslands, and forests, as well as managed and wildland sites. Soil respiration was calculated in 30-minute intervals using the gradient method based on soil CO2 concentrations measured at three different depths in conjunction with estimates of soil CO2 diffusivity based on soil physical properties, soil moisture and temperature profiles, and barometric pressure. Inevitably with such a large number of data inputs, the temporal coverage of good quality (i.e., unflagged) soil respiration values was relatively low (8%) because one or more of the input data were flagged, but this was significantly higher for some sites and soil plots (maximum: 58%). Ongoing efforts to increase the quality of input data are expected to substantially improve temporal coverage. Despite these gaps, over 54,000 unflagged half-hourly soil respiration data points were generated for the period of Apr-Jun 2019 (the temporal range and the number of sites will be increased further over coming months). Across all sites and times, soil temperature and soil moisture explained only a moderate amount of variation in soil respiration (20%). However, including site in the model increased the proportions of variation explained to 85%, indicating the importance of site-specific properties, such as vegetation and microbial community composition and the accessibility of soil carbon, in controlling soil respiration rates. Within each site, soil temperature was typically positively correlated with respiration and in the cases where it was not, this was often due to large fluxes of CO2 leaving the soil during snowmelt. The relationship between soil moisture and respiration within each site was more variable, with both positive and negative relationships observed.
Using web standards including Schema.org and JSON-LD, the GeoCODES project extends Schema.org with Project 418's geoscience specific vocabulary. By embedding properly formatted and populated JSON-LD files in web sites serving geolocated datasets, search engines such as Google and Bing are able to parse and index these data sets and then to provide information concerning these datasets via standard web search tools. Due to the difficult nature of properly formatting and populating these JSON-LD structures, the GeoCODES User Interface was created to guide data providers through the process of describing the data and validating the descriptions against standard vocabularies. The result is user friendly and easily extensible web based, mobile device ready tool for automatically generating JSON-LD metadata for organizations and datasets. This ultimately allows the original data to be found and used by both scientists and the public.
Terrestrial hot springs have existed throughout Earth’s history and house some of the most ancient evidence of life on our planet. These settings are known for their high habitability and preservation potential, and are extensively studied as analog environments since hot spring deposits are thought to exist on the surface of Mars. Hot spring water commonly precipitates silica that coats microbial life dwelling in the hot spring outflow streams. This process can entomb microorganisms and preserve microbial remains over long timescales and with high morphological fidelity. Here we present research carried out on modern and sub-recent remains of microbial filaments from amorphous (unaltered) silica deposits in Yellowstone National Park. This work suggests that various elements sequestered by hot spring-dwelling organisms during life are preserved in microbial remains and persist over > 10,000 years. We also present findings from microfossils preserved in mid-Paleozoic terrestrial hot spring deposits which also show sequestrations of select elements in microfossil remains, suggesting that certain elements may persist even after several hundred million years and substantial host rock alteration. These elemental concentrations may be indicative of metabolic functioning during life and have application as biosignatures. Recent developments in analytical instrumentation now allow for even extremely low trace elemental abundances to be detected and mapped, regardless of sample complexity. This work is especially relevant to the search for life on Mars, as evidence of impact-induced hydrothermal activity may exist near the rim of Jezero Crater and may be sampled by the Perseverance rover. As a primary objective of the Mars 2020 mission is to search for evidence of past life on Mars, we suggest the application of this analytical technique to be valuable for potential samples returned to Earth by future Mars Sample Return missions. Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.
Temporal redox fluctuations alter the pools of reducible FeIII and greenhouse gas emissions in humid upland soils. However, it is less clear how the characteristics of these fluctuations (length, frequency, amplitude) impact biogeochemical rates. We hypothesized that anaerobic rates of FeIII reduction and CH4 emissions are sensitive to the length of soil oxygen deprivation. To test this hypothesis, we exposed a surface soil from the Luquillo Experimental Forest to three lengths of O2 perturbation during repeated redox oscillations: an anoxic interval of 6 d with oxic intervals of 8, 24, or 72 h. We found that shorter oxic intervals resulted in more anaerobic FeIII reduction, while longer oxic intervals stimulated higher anaerobic CH4 emissions (CO2 fluxes did not change). We propose that short O2 pulses stimulate Fe reduction by resupplying the FeIII electron acceptor, but do not last long enough to inhibit microbial Fe reducers; conversely long O2 pulses suppress microbial iron reducers to a greater extent than methanogens leading to enhanced CH4 emissions. Thus, the length of periodic oxidant exposure selectively enhances less thermodynamically favorable anaerobic processes by modulating the competitiveness of dominate anaerobic bacteria, which is important for regulating greenhouse gas emissions in redox dynamic soils.
This paper proposes the hypothesis of how a single neuron processes information, that is, a specific Frame of Stimuli can only produce a specific Frame of Responses, or multi-value operation, that is, a specific combination of multiple input values generates a specific combination of multiple output values, and then discusses the possibility of such hypothesis.
We utilize the Planet Model Code  to model the probability of survival of Earth-like life on habitable worlds (to 3 billion years post-abiogenesis). The Planet Model Code  was originally created by Tyrrell  to investigate the chances of intelligent life. This necessitates stability in a rather narrow temperature range. Here we expand the focus to the survival of any life, including extremophiles, with greater tolerance for variations in temperature. Specifically, we investigate the relationship between the long-term survival probability of life and larger temperature variations. Keywords: Exoplanet; Habitable; Prokaryote; Matlab; Planet Model Code References: 1. T. Tyrrell, Planets model code, (Oct. 2020) https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4081451. 2. T. Tyrrell, “Chance played a role in determining whether earth stayed habitable”, Commu- nications Earth & Environment 1, 1–10 (2020).
Soil carbon sequestration has gained traction as a mean to mitigate rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Verification of different methods’ efficiency to increase soil carbon sink requires, in addition to good quality measurements, reliable models capable of simulating the effect of the sequestration practises. One way to get insight of the methods’ effects on carbon cycling processes is to analyse different carbon isotope concentrations in soil organic matter. In this paper we introduce a carbon-13 isotope specific soil organic matter decomposition add-on into the Yasso soil carbon model and assess its functionality. The new 13C-dedicated decomposition is straightforward to implement and depends linearly on the default Yasso model parameters and the relative carbon isotope (13C/12C) concentration. Despite of their simplicity, the modifications considerably improve the model behaviour in a 50-year long simulation.
Native hydrogen (H2) may represent a new carbon free energy resource, but to date there is no specific exploration guide to target H2-fertile geological settings. Here, we present the first soil gas survey specifically designed to explore H2 migration in a region where no surface seepage has been documented so far. We choose the Pyrenean orogenic belt and its northern foreland basin (Aquitaine, France) as a playground to test our strategy. The presence of a mantle body at shallow depth (< 10 km) under the Mauléon Basin connected to the surface by major faults is considered as a preliminary pathfinder for H2 generation and drainage. On this basis, more than 1,100 in situ soil gas analysis (H2, CO, CO2, CH4, H2S, and 222Rn) were performed at ~1 m depth at the regional scale along a 10 x 10 km grid spanning over 7,500 km2. The analysis campaign reveals several hot spots to the north of the Mauléon Basin where H2, CO2 and 222Rn concentrations exceed 1000 ppmv, 10 vol% and 50 kBq m-3, respectively. Most of these hot spots are located along the North Pyrenean Frontal Thrust and other related faults rooted in the mantle body. These results, together with evidence of fluid migration at depth, suggest that H2 may be sourced from mantle rocks serpentinization and carried to the surface along major thrusting faults. Hydrogen traps remain unidentified up to now but the presence of salt-related structures (diapirs) near these hot spots could play this role.
Nutrient pollution is considered one of America’s most widespread, costly, and challenging environmental problems. Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs), a phytoremediation technology, has been proven as an efficient, environmental-friendly, and cost-effective strategy to address this issue. However, most previous studies of AFIs were done in controlled conditions at mesocosm experiments. In addition, limited information exists on the use of AFIs as a nutrient remediation/prevention strategy in Ohio. This study aims to fill these gaps. We are currently undertaking a combination of mesocosm and natural experiment to assess the nutrient-removal efficiency of AFI systems in the Milliron Research Wetlands (at the Ohio State University Mansfield campus), and establish a performance baseline for two native aquatic plant species, Carex comosa and Eleocharis palustris. In this study, 18 AFIs, 6 planted with Carex comosa, 6 with Eleocharis palustris, and 6 have no plants, were deployed in a section of the Milliron Research Wetlands. Physical and chemical parameters are being monitored bi-weekly. The AFI systems are constructed using PVC pipes to provide buoyance, EVA foam mats as platforms, and nylon nets to cover the system. Each AFI unit has nine luffa sponges, inserted in the foam mat, to hold aquatic plant seedlings, keep the moisture of roots, and enlarge the surface area for bacterial biofilm development. Since nutrient removal from the wetland is affected by numerous natural processes, a mesocosm experiment was set up to assist the quantification of nutrient removal due specifically to the presence of AFIs. The mesocosm experiment mimics the natural experiment at the wetland and contain 12 equal-size tanks containing water pumped directly from the wetland, 3 of which have AFIs with Carex comosa, 3 have Eleocharis palustris, 3 have no plants, and 3 contain just water from the wetland. Physical and chemical measurements (as well as sample collections) are performed weekly in the tanks. Water in the tanks are exchanged bi-weekly. Preliminary results show that the AFI systems quickly developed large root systems and extensive bacterial biofilms. The effects of the associations between plant biomass, biofilm development, and changing chemical and physical conditions will be investigated as the experiment progresses.
New Caledonia owns about 25% of the world’s nickel resources, and around 9% of the world’s reserves, distributed over 300,000 hectares of concessions allocated to date (18% of the total surface of the main island). Supergene weathering of ultramafic rocks have led to the genesis of lateritic nickel-rich ores of garnierite type (NiO> 1.5%) and / or iron oxi-hydroxide type (NiO <1.5%) under tropical lateritic conditions that have prevailed over 30 millions of years. These conditions have shaped the landscapes while offering Ni-rich regolith easy to exploit by open pit mining. Since 1880, nickel has been so far used as an economic driver and a societal development impetus. Since 1998, three worldwide projects have been developed, using pyrometallurgy (Ni-Si) and more recently hydrometallurgy (Ni-Fe) ore processes. However, natural erosion, anthropogenic disturbances (climate change, fires, urbanization, mining) can add up to disrupt the whole terrestrial and marine ecosystem functioning at the regional scale.This critical mined zone is covered by terrestrial ecosystems of great endemic biodiversity and adjoining a lagoon that has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2008. Such ecosystems are a valuable natural resource for the sustainable future for the next generations. Are mining and preserving ecosystems compatible, and for what economic and societal model? The conference reviews a collective research approach (mining, terrestrial and marine ecosystems impacts, restoration, biorecycling) to address this question. The corpus of acquired knowledge allows to propose an inclusive model of responsible mining activity, based on the “co-valorization” of both non-renewable and renewable primary resources through the development of circular economy and bio-economy principles, and applied all along the “mining ecosystem” project management. Considering i)the present day low GDP input of nickel mining in New Caledonia, the 98% dependency rate from fossil sources of energy, the CO2 emissions and the volatile Ni-market international context, this model, if followed, will reinforce the societal cohesion and develop a sustainable economy diversification, while enhancing energy transition and a better ecological efficiency.
Low-current tributary-estuaries and embayments along the margin of the Hudson River are uniquely at risk for harmful algal blooms of cyanobacteria (cyanoHABs) due to rising temperatures as a result of climate change. An increased prevalence of cyanoHABs in near-shore, low-current sections of the Hudson River could be extremely harmful to nearby communities, aquatic organisms and wildlife. To address this increased risk, it is imperative to understand the current in-stream and upstream abiotic environmental controls (nutrients, water temperature, etc.) on the current background levels of cyanobacteria within the Hudson River. It is also important to understand how these controls and cyanobacterial populations vary spatially with relation to the higher risk, lower-flow sections along the margins of the Hudson River. Locations of tributary-estuaries of special concern within the Hudson Valley include Esopus Creek in Saugerties, Rondout Creek in Kingston, and Wappingers Creek in Wappingers, NY. Other locations of concern are embayments along the Hudson River such as Long Dock Park in Beacon, Port Ewen in Kingston and Norrie Point in Staatsburg, NY. Given the lower-flow nature of these sites, elevated surface water temperatures are likely a result of settled, striated layers from decreased current. These locations are also susceptible to growth of the invasive species Trapa natans or commonly known as the European water chestnut. High concentrations of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous within the water chestnut bloom and the captured sunlight from metabolic processes like photosynthesis can create an ideal microhabitat for harmful algae like cyanobacteria. The background levels of cyanobacteria in outflows of tributaries, and their lower-flow estuary extensions were observed alongside the water quality within the water chestnut blooms of these sites at varying depths. By studying the weekly changes in background abundance of cyanobacteria and their drivers occurring at contrasting locations along the Hudson River, it was found that the strongest controls included turbidity, temperature and levels of phosphorous. In locations of low turbidity and high surface water temperatures, the background levels of cyanobacteria were higher in these lower-flow areas than in areas with increased turbidity. Cyanobacteria was found in greater number within water chestnut blooms than in whole water samples outside the area of the bloom. High surface temperature and riverbed temperature also related to higher levels of cyanobacteria. Given the concluded information, it is apparent that invasive water chestnuts within lower-flow extensions of the Hudson River hold a greater threat than originally understood; creating an ideal habitat for potential cyanoHABs in the wake of climate change.
In studying problems like plant-soil-microbe interactions in environmental biogeochemistry and ecology, one usually has to quantify and model how substrates control the growth of, and interaction among, biological organisms. To address these substrate-consumer relationships, many substrate kinetics and growth rules have been developed, including the famous Monod kinetics for single substrate-based growth, Liebig’s law of the minimum for multiple-nutrient co-limited growth, etc. However, the mechanistic basis that leads to these various concepts and mathematical formulations and the implications of their parameters are often quite uncertain. Here we show that an analogy based on Ohm’s law in electric circuit theory is able to unify many of these different concepts and mathematical formulations. In this Ohm’s law analogy, a resistor is defined by a combination of consumers’ and substrates’kinetic traits. In particular, the resistance is equal to the mean first passage time that has been used by renewal theory to derive the Michaelis-Menten kinetics under substrate replete conditions for a single substrate as well as the predation rate of individual organisms. We further show that this analogy leads to important insights on various biogeochemical problems, such as (1) multiple-nutrient co-limited biological growth, (2) denitrification, (3) fermentation under aerobic conditions, (4) metabolic temperature sensitivity, and (5) the accuracy of Monod kinetics for describing bacterial growth. We expect our approach will help both modelers and non-modelers to better understand and formulate hypotheses when studying certain aspects of environmental biogeochemistry and ecology.
Oceanographic research cruises produce abundant data, using a wide range of methods and equipment; very often through large collaborative efforts. These research endeavors span a broad array of disciplines and are critical to investigating the interplay between biological, geological, and chemical processes in the ocean systems over space and time. The advent of genomic sequencing technologies allows for the analysis of gene expression in a variety of environmental settings, to measure the distribution and significance of metabolites and lipids in organisms and the environment. Despite scientists’ best efforts to carefully curate and share their data with collaborators to advance individual studies and publications, no systematic, unifying framework currently exists to integrate ‘omics data with physical, geochemical, and biological datasets commonly used by the broader geoscience community. As a result, the moment each sample leaves the ship is often the last time each data component appears together in a unified collection. Typically, ‘omics datasets are submitted to nucleotide sequence repositories, whereas contextual environmental data are submitted and stored in specialized data-repositories, or only made available within published papers. This makes it difficult to fully reconnect in-situ data, therefore limiting their reuse in other studies. The development of resources to facilitate the aggregation, publication and reuse of biological datasets along with their physicochemical information is critical for studying marine microbes and the biogeochemical processes in the ocean that they drive. We present Planet Microbe, a cyberinfrastructure resource enabling data discovery and open data sharing for historical and on-going oceanographic sequencing efforts. Several historical oceanographic ‘omics datasets (Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT), Bermuda Atlantic Time-series (BATS), Global Ocean Sampling Expedition (GOS)) have been integrated into Planet Microbe along with new oceanic large-scale datasets as the Tara Expeditions and Ocean Sampling Day (OSD). In Planet Microbe, these ’omics data have been reintegrated with their in-situ environmental contextual data, including biological and physicochemical measurements, and information about sampling events, and sampling stations. Finally, cruise tracks, protocols and instrumentation are also linked to these datasets to provide the user with a comprehensive view of the metadata. Additionally, Planet Microbe integrates computational tools using National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Cyberinfrastructure (CyVerse) and provides users with free access to large-scale computing power to analyze and explore these datasets.
Searching for life on other planets and planetary bodies poses a number of challenges, especially given that there is currently no clear evidence that lifeforms can only conform to characteristics observed on Earth. While current astrobiology missions operate under the assumption that any astrobiological entities of interest will have similar properties to organisms on Earth (‘canonical’ lifeforms), the current convention of searching for direct evidence of such lifeforms (e.g. organic compounds, genetic material, etc.) is largely exclusionary to any biologically valid lifeforms which are not currently a part of the canonical model of life that is used to drive exploratory efforts. It is proposed that the definition of life be broadened to include any entities capable of maintaining homeostasis relative to an entropic environment. Thus, instead of the traditional strategy of searching for direct evidence of life conforming to Earth-based standards, i.e., looking for specific organic compounds, a new strategy could be used to indirectly identify lifeforms through their utilization of environmental resources (e.g. as energy sources).