We present partial ring distributions of solar wind protons observed by the Rosetta spacecraft at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The formation of ring distributions is usually associated with high activity comets, where the spatial scales are larger than multiple ion gyroradii. Our observations are made at a low-activity comet at a heliocentric distance of 2.8 AU on April 19th, 2016, and the partial rings occur at a spatial scale comparable to the ion gyroradius. We use a new visualisation method to simultaneously show the angular distribution of median energy and differential flux. A fitting procedure extracts the bulk speed of the solar wind protons, separated into components parallel and perpendicular to the gyration plane, as well as the gyration velocity. The results are compared with models and put into context of the global comet environment. We find that the formation mechanism of these partial rings of solar wind protons is entirely different from the well-known partial rings of cometary pickup ions at high-activity comets. A density enhancement layer of solar wind protons around the comet is a focal point for proton trajectories originating from different regions of the upstream solar wind. If the spacecraft location coincides with this density enhancement layer, the different trajectories are observed as an energy-angle dispersion and manifest as partial rings in velocity space.
Surface charging properties of a non-conducting surface that has a deep cavity and is in contact with the solar wind plasma are investigated by means of the particle-in-cell plasma simulations. The modeled topography is intended with a portion of irregular surfaces found on solid planetary bodies. The simulations have revealed unconventional charging features in that the cavity bottom is charged up to positive values even without any electron emission processes such as photoemission, provided that the surface location is accessible to a portion of incoming solar wind ions. The major driver of the positive charging is identified as drifting ions of the solar wind plasma, and an uncommon current ordering where ion currents exceed electron currents is established at the innermost part of the deep cavity. This also implies that the cavity bottom surface may have a positive potential of several hundred volts, corresponding to the kinetic energy of the ions. The present study also clarifies the role of photoelectrons in developing the distinctive charging environment inside the cavity. The photoemitted electrons can no longer trigger positive charging at the cavity bottom, but rather exhibit the effect of relaxing positive potentials caused by the solar wind ions. The identified charging process, which are primarily due to the solar wind ions, are localized at the depths of the cavity and may be one possible scenario for generating intense electric fields inside the cavity.
We present a statistical study of Jupiter’s disk X-ray emissions using 19 years of Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) observations. Previous work has suggested that these emissions are consistent with solar X-rays elastically scattered from Jupiter’s upper atmosphere. We showcase a new Pulse Invariant (PI) filtering method that minimises instrumental effects which may produce unphysical trends in photon counts across the nearly-two-decade span of the observations. We compare the CXO results with solar X-ray flux data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray Sensor (XRS) for the wavelength band 1-8 Å (long channel), to quantify the correlation between solar activity and jovian disk counts. We find a statistically significant Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (PCC) of 0.9, which confirms that emitted jovian disk X-rays are predominantly governed by solar activity. We also utilise the high spatial resolution of the High Resolution Camera Instrument (HRC-I) on board the CXO to map the disk photons to their positions on Jupiter’s surface. Voronoi tessellation diagrams were constructed with the JRM09 (Juno Reference Model through Perijove 9) internal field model overlaid to identify any spatial preference of equatorial photons. After accounting for area and scattering across the curved surface of the planet, we find a preference of jovian disk emission at 2-3.5 Gauss surface magnetic field strength. This suggests that a portion of the disk X-rays may be linked to processes other than solar scattering: the spatial preference associated with magnetic field strength may imply increased precipitation from the radiation belts, as previously postulated.
Interaction between ocean waves and sea ice may play an important role in sea ice retreat in the Arctic. However, it is difficult to quantify the change of ocean waves propagating in ice as nearly no available measurements. Although SAR has shown the capability of imaging ocean waves in ice-covered areas, there are few attempts to retrieve two-dimensional ocean wave spectra (OWS) by SAR. In this study, we applied the previously developed nonlinear inversion scheme, i.e., the MPI scheme, to retrieve OWS by the Sentinel-1 SAR data acquired in the Barents Sea, where waves penetrate deeply in ice. We compared the retrieved spectra by different combinations of modulation transfer functions (MTFs) used in the MPI scheme, i.e., the same MTFs as those used in retrievals in open water, neglecting both the hydrodynamic and tilt modulations in the MTFs, and neglecting the hydrodynamic modulation but remaining the tilt modulation (a new one fitted in this study for HH-polarized SAR data over ice) in the MTFs. As no in situ measurements (e.g., by directional buoys) available, we compared the simulated SAR image spectra based on the retrievals with the observational SAR image spectra to quantify their respective performances. The comparisons suggest that neglecting hydrodynamic modulation can significantly improve the retrievals. Remaining tilt modulation can further improve the retrievals, particularly for range-travelling waves. The study enhances the understanding of principles of SAR imaging waves in ice and provides basics for retrievals of ocean wave spectra by SAR data in ice-covered areas.
Volcanism is the dominant natural source of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, biosphere, ocean and sediments. In recent years, sedimentary Hg contents have emerged as a tool to reconstruct volcanic activity, and particularly activity of (subaerially emplaced) large igneous provinces (LIP) in geological deep time. More specifically, Hg has shown potential as a useful proxy to illuminate the previously elusive impact of such large-scale volcanism on marine and terrestrial paleo-environments. While Hg is now widely applied as volcanism tracer, non-volcanic factors controlling sedimentary Hg content are generally not well constrained. Part of this uncertainty stems from our inability to directly observe a natural unperturbed “steady-state” environment as a baseline, as the modern Hg cycle is heavily influenced by anthropogenic activity. Here we focus on the effects of ambient redox conditions in the water column and shallow sediments (early diagenesis), quantify their influence on the geological Hg record and thereby constrain their potential impact on the use of Hg as a proxy for deep-time volcanic activity. Constraining these factors is of critical importance for the application of Hg as a proxy. Many periods in the geological past for which records have been generated, such as the Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events, are marked by a variety of high-amplitude environmental perturbations, including widespread deoxygenation and deposition of organic-rich sediments. We estimate the impact of redox changes and early diagenesis on the geological Hg record using a suite of (sub)recent–Pleistocene and Upper Cretaceous sediments representing oxic to euxinic marine conditions. Our sample set includes a transect through an oxygen minimum zone and cores that record transient shifts in oxygenation state, as well as post-depositional effects – all unrelated to volcanism, to the best of our knowledge. We find substantial alterations to the Hg record and the records of organic carbon and total sulfur, which are typically assumed to be the most common carrier phases of Hg in marine sediments. Moreover, these biases can lead to signal-alterations on a par with those interpreted to result from volcanic activity. Geochemical modifications are ubiquitous and their potential magnitude implies that the factors leading to biases in the geological record warrant careful consideration before interpretation. Factors of particular concern to proxy application are (1) the disproportionate loss of organic carbon and sulfur compounds relative to Hg during oxidation that strongly modulates normalized Hg records, (2) the evasion of Hg in anoxic and mildly euxinic sediments and (3) sharp focusing of Hg during post-depositional oxidation of organic matter.
This work uses the Specified Dynamics-Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with Ionosphere/Thermosphere eXtension (SD-WACCM-X) to determine and explain the seasonality of the migrating semidiurnal tide (SW2) components of tropical upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (UMLT) temperature, zonal-wind and meridional-wind. This work also quantifies aliasing due to SW2 in satellite-based tidal estimates. Results show that during equinox seasons, the vertical profile of tropical UMLT temperature SW2 and zonal wind SW2’s amplitudes have a double peak structure while they, along with meridional wind SW2, have a single peak structure in their amplitudes in June solstice. Hough mode reconstruction reveals that a linear combination of 5 SW2 Hough modes cannot fully reproduced these features. Tendency analysis reveals that for temperature, the adiabatic term, non-linear advection term and linear advection term are important. For the winds, the classical terms, non-linear advection term, linear advection term and gravity wave drag are important. Results of our alias analysis then indicate that SW2 can induce an ~60% alias in zonal-mean and DW1 components calculated from sampling like that of the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite and the Aura satellite. This work concludes that in-situ generation by wave-wave interaction and/or by gravity waves play significant roles in the seasonality of tropical UMLT temperature SW2, zonal wind SW2 and meridional wind SW2. The alias analysis further adds that one cannot simply assume SW2 in the tropical UMLT is negligible.
We argue that ocean general circulation models and observations based on Ekman or geostrophic balance provide estimates of the Lagrangian-mean ocean velocity field averaged over surface waves — the total time-averaged velocity that advects oceanic tracers, particles, and water parcels. This interpretation contradicts an assumption often made in ocean transport studies that numerical models and observations based on dynamical balances estimate the Eulerian-mean velocity — the velocity time-averaged at a fixed position and only _part_ of the total ocean velocity. Our argument uses the similarity between the wave-averaged Lagrangian-mean momentum equations appropriate at large oceanic scales, and the momentum equations solved by “wave-agnostic” general circulation models that neglect surface wave effects. We further our case by comparing a realistic, global, “wave-agnostic” general circulation ocean model to a wave-averaged Lagrangian-mean general circulation ocean model at eddy-permitting 1/4-degree resolution, and find that the wave-agnostic velocity field is almost identical to the wave-averaged Lagrangian-mean velocity.
The water mass assembly of Nares Strait is variable, owing to fluctuating wind forcings over the Arctic Basins, and irregular northward flows from the West Greenland Current (WGC) in Baffin Bay. Here we characterize the physico-chemical properties of the water masses entering Nares Strait in August 2014, and we employ an extended optimum multi-parameter (OMP) water mass analysis to estimate the mixing fractions of predefined source water masses, and to distinguish the role of physical and biological processes in governing the distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in Nares Strait. We show the first documented evidence of Siberian shelf waters in Nares Strait, along with a diluted upper halocline layer of partial Pacific-origin. These mixed-origin water masses appear to play an important role in driving a modest phytoplankton bloom in Kane Basin, leading to decreased surface pCO2 concentrations in Nares Strait. Although inorganic nitrogen was already limited in the surface mixed layer in northern Nares Strait, the unique properties of mixed Atlantic-Pacific water facilitated upwelling and nutrient supply to the surface. These observations suggest that the positioning of the Transpolar Drift, and hence the balance of Atlantic and Pacific water delivered to Nares Strait, is likely to play an important role in regional biological productivity and carbon uptake from the atmosphere. We also observed water masses from the WGC transported as far north as Kane Basin, contributing to relatively high pCO2 and low pH in the intermediate and deep water column of southern Nares Strait and northern Baffin Bay.
Recent worldwide heatwaves have shattered temperature records in many regions. In this study, we applied a dynamical downscaling method on the high-resolution version of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM-1-2-HR) to obtain projections of the summer thermal environments and heatwaves in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) considering three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, and SSP5-8.5) in the middle and late 21st century. Results indicated that relative to the temperatures in the 2010s, the mean increases in the summer daytime and nighttime temperatures in the 2040s will be 0.7–0.8 °C and 0.9–1.1 °C, respectively. In the 2090s, they will be 0.5–3.1 °C and 0.7–3.4 °C, respectively. SSP1-2.6 is the only scenario in which the temperatures in the 2090s are expected to be lower than those in the 2040s. Compared with those in the 2010s, hot extremes are expected to be more frequent, more intense, more extensive, and longer-lasting in the future in the SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios. In the 2010s, a heatwave occurred in the PRD lasted for 6 days on average, with a mean daily maximum temperature of 34.4 °C. In the 2040s, the heatwave duration and intensity are expected to increase by 2–3 days and 0.2–0.4 °C in all three scenarios. In the 2090s, the increase in these values will be 23 days and 36.0 °C in SSP5-8.5. Moreover, a 10-year extreme high temperature in the 2010s is expected to occur at a monthly frequency from June to September.
Using the data from Van Allen Probe A and B, we investigate rapid enhancements of relativistic electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt caused by the intense substorms (AEmax > ~ 900 nT) for 29 events from January 2013 to April 2015. These intense substorms may occur during the storm main phase or recovery phase. Based on the different substorm evolution characteristics, the intense substorms are divided into isolated substorm activities and continuous substorm activities. In this study, we set a criterion for rapid enhancements when the electron phase space densities (PSDs) for μ = 1096, 2290, and 3311 MeV/G increased by more than 2 times in 9 hours. In the time interval of 9 hours, the local acceleration of chorus waves is the dominant process for accelerating the seed populations (100s keV) up to MeV energies. Our statistical results show that enhanced chorus waves and seed electrons during the intense substorms are observed in the outer radiation belt. Continuous substorm activities can more rapidly (< 9 h) and efficiently accelerate relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt than isolated substorm activity. During the intense substorms, MeV electron injections could contribute to rapid enhancements of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Our statistical study suggests that the intense substorms during geomagnetic storms have a significant effect on the rapid variations of relativistic electron dynamics.
The magnetometer of the InSight mission operated on the martian surface from November 2018 until May 2022. Previously, satellites have provided information on the martian magnetic field environment from orbit, however, the degree to which external fields penetrate to and interact with the surface could not be studied prior to the InSight landing. Here, we present an overview of the complete surface magnetic field data from InSight sols 14 to 1241 that display different external magnetic field phenomena, transient and periodic. Periodic observations range from short period waves (100s-1000s of seconds), diurnal variations, ~26 sol Carrington rotations, to seasonal fluctuations. Transient events are observed in response to space weather and dust movement. We find that ionospheric variations are the dominant contribution as seen from the surface, while contributions from the undisturbed IMF are more subtle. We discuss limitations associated with a single point measurement and opportunities that future missions could enable. Including magnetometers on future missions at a variety of locations for long-duration continuous observations will be of great value in understanding a range of external field phenomena and will enable further investigations in different crustal magnetic field settings.
Smart stormwater systems equipped with real-time controls are transforming urban drainage management by enhancing the flood control and water treatment potential of previously static infrastructure. Real-time control of detention basins, for instance, has been shown to improve contaminant removal by increasing hydraulic retention times while also reducing downstream flood risk. However, to date, few studies have explored optimal real-time control strategies for achieving both water quality and flood control targets. This study advances a new model-predictive control (MPC) algorithm for stormwater detention ponds that determines the outlet valve control schedule needed to maximize pollutant removal and minimize flooding using forecasts of the incoming pollutograph and hydrograph. We illustrate that, compared to rule-based controls, MPC more effectively prevents overflows, reduces peak discharges, improves water quality, and adapts to changing hydrologic inputs. Moreover, when paired with an online data assimilation scheme based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF), we find that MPC is robust to uncertainty in both pollutograph forecasts and water quality measurements. By providing an integrated control strategy that optimizes both water quality and quantity goals while remaining robust to uncertainty in hydrologic and pollutant dynamics, our study paves the way for real-world smart stormwater systems that will achieve improved flood and nonpoint source pollution management.
Access to groundwater leaves riparian plants in drylands resistant to atmospheric drought but vulnerable to changes in climate or water use that reduce streamflow and groundwater tables. Despite the vulnerability of riparian vegetation to water balance changes few extensible methods have been developed to automatically map riparian plants at the scale of individual stands or stream reaches, to assess their response to changes in moisture due to drought and climate change, and to contrast those responses across plant functional types. We used LiDAR and a sub-annual timeseries of NDVI to map vegetation and then assessed drought response by comparing a drought index to variation in a remotely sensed metric of plant health. First, a random forest model was built to classify vegetation communities based on phenological changes in Sentinel-2 NDVI. This model produced community classes with an overall accuracy of 97.9%; accuracy for the riparian vegetation class was 98.9%. Following this initial classification, LiDAR measurements of vegetation height were used to split the riparian class into structural subclasses. Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis was applied to a timeseries of Landsat imagery from 1984 to 2018, producing annual sub-pixel fractions of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and soil. Relationships were assessed within structural subclasses between mid-summer green vegetation fraction (GV) and the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), a measure of soil moisture drought. Among riparian vegetation subclasses, all groups showed significant positive correlations between SPEI and GV, indicating an increase in healthy plant material during wetter years. However, the relationship was strongest for herbaceous plants (R^2=0.509, m=0.0278), intermediate for shrubs (R^2=0.339, m=0.0262), and weakest for the largest trees (R^2=0.1373, m=0.0145). This implies decoupling of larger riparian plants from the impacts of atmospheric drought due to subsidies provided by groundwater resources. Our method was extended successfully to multiple climatically-dissimilar dryland systems in the American Southwest, and the results provide a basis for ongoing studies on the fine-scale drought response and climatic vulnerability of riparian woodlands.
The autumn precipitation in the central region of China (APCC) can exert great influences to the production and people’s livelihood. With the use of reanalysis data from 1979−2020, we found a simultaneous relationship between the interannual variability of APCC and the second mode of the 200-hPa meridional wind field over the Eurasian continent, which featured a ‘+-+’ wave-like pattern in autumn (denoted by EC-a). When EC-a is in a positive phase, the coupling of the positive geopotential height with anticyclonic anomalies in the upper level and low sea level pressure over the central China provides a conducive moisture and dynamic condition for precipitation, which is reversed in the negative phase. As indicated by the diagnostic equation, the local vertical motion anomaly is mainly dependent on the temperature advection anomaly by the perturbed wind acting on mean temperature. The strengthened anticyclonic wind shear over East Asia reinforces the southeasterly, which induces warmer air to move northward, resulting in a positive temperature advection and hence enhancing local ascending motion. Moreover, wave flux analysis and numerical simulations show that the EC-a wave train could be triggered by an abnormal dipole pattern SST over the North Atlantic Ocean, which acts as a critical pacemaker on the variability of EC-a.
Numerical simulation of rupture dynamics provides critical insights for understanding earthquake physics, while the complex geometry of natural faults makes numerical method development challenging. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is suitable for handling complex fault geometries. In the DG method, the fault boundary conditions can be conveniently imposed through the upwind flux by solving a Riemann problem based on a velocity-strain elastodynamic equation. However, the universal adoption of upwind flux can cause spatial oscillations in cases where elements on adjacent sides of the fault surface are not nearly symmetric. Here we propose a nodal DG method with an upwind/central mixed-flux scheme to solve the spatial oscillation problem, and thus to reduce the dependence on mesh quality. We verify the new method by comparing our results with those from other methods on a series of published benchmark problems with complex fault geometries, heterogeneous materials, off-fault plasticity, roughness, thermal pressurization, and various versions of fault friction laws. Finally, we demonstrate that our method can be applied to simulate the dynamic rupture process of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake along/across multiple fault segments. Our method can achieve high scalability in parallel computing under different orders of accuracy, showing high potential for adaptation to earthquake rupture simulation on natural tectonic faults.
We investigate the magnetic fabrics of Impact melt breccia at the Dhala impact structure to understand its emplacement mechanism. Our results show that the pseudo-single domains of Ti-poor magnetite and Ti-hematite are the prime magnetic carriers in the impact melt breccia. The magnetic fabrics from most sites reveal a general westward flow of impact melt breccia (IMB), with magnetic lineations of individual specimens trending between NW and SW. This indicates the emplacement of IMB in a semi-molten state with temperatures below c. 1500°C, which is the melting point of Ti-magnetite. Occurrence of poorly sorted clasts implies that IMB was emplaced as surficial flow rather than aerial. The variation in the dips of magnetic fabrics among individual specimens from a site resembles a pyroclastic flow rather than a ground-hugging volatile- and melt-rich flow. We, therefore, suggest that the IMB at Dhala was ballistically ejected and then moved in a semi-molten state as surficial pyroclastic-like flow with temperatures below c. 1500°C. Most flow vectors aligned between NW-SW, may represent a dominant westward excavation flow of the IMB (rather than radially outward flow), which may be activated by an east-to-west directed impactor striking at an impact angle below 50°.
Whole-stream metabolism models are generally implemented with a steady flow assumption that does not hold true for many systems with sub-daily flow variation, such as river sections downstream of dams. The steady flow assumption has confined metabolism estimation to a limited range of river environments, thus limiting our understanding about the influence of hydrology on biological production in rivers. Therefore, we couple a flow routing model with the two-station stream metabolism model to estimate metabolism under unsteady flow conditions in rivers. The model’s applicability is further extended by including advection-dispersion processes to facilitate metabolism estimation in transient storage zones. Metabolism is estimated using two approaches: (1) an accounting approach similar to the conventional two-station method and (2) an inverse approach that estimates metabolism parameters using least-squares minimisation method. Both approaches are complementary since we use outputs of the accounting approach to constrain the inverse model parameters. The model application is demonstrated using a case study of an 11 km long stretch downstream of a hydropower plant in the River Otra in southern Norway. We present and test different formulations of the model to show that users can make an appropriate selection that best represents hydrology and solute transport mechanism in the river system of interest. The inclusion of unsteady flows and transient storage zones in the model unlocks new possibilities for studying metabolism controls in altered river ecosystems.
The local temperarture cannot explain the inter-annual variation in δ18Oprecip in the coastal Antarctic in past few decades. To understand this enigmatic variation, we have used long-term modern δ18Oprecip value of three coastal Antarctic sites. Using the δ18O-d-excess relationship and modelled δ18O value of vapor at source, we have shown that δ18Oprecip inherits the signature of moisture source parameters (MSPs). Furthermore, the wavelet analysis suggests that the variation in the MSPs impacts the seasonal cycle of δ18Oprecip which lead to disparity in the seasonal isotope-temperature relationship. The Southern Ocean surface stratification, due to increase in the freshwater flux by glacier melting, led to alignment of MSPs in such a manner that altogether significantly lowered the isotopic composition of initially formed vapor, which is reflected in δ18Oprecip at inter-annual scale. Our observations suggest that the palaeothermometry will underestimate the Antarctic temperature change for the periods characterized by warming and high glacier-melt.