Climate communication involves deep community engagement and multiple parallel behavior interventions for a wide array of audiences. Images include large amounts of culturally nuanced details that can improve the social uptake of community climate interventions. Image specificity grounds information within subgroups improving the relatability and accuracy of emerging regional interventions. We experimented with using ArcGIS to collect and sort regionally and topically sorted climate mitigation and resilience behaviors. We'll review how our team set up a feedback loop in Survey123 and ArcGIS and how this might be useful in future climate messaging.
Across geospatial domains and practices, there is a pressing educational need for engagement with and understanding of computational and technical advancements relevant to geospatial work. Computational skills and practices, like working with big data, creation and management of machine learning algorithms, work with automation in data analysis and management, and many others, are growing as fundamentals to conducting geospatial scientific research, and to learning in the geospatial classroom. The Hour of CyberInfrastructure (Hour of CI) project aims to create learning materials for use in diverse learning contexts to provide learners a base to build their practice in eight core areas of cyber literacy pertinent to geographic information science (GIS) and geospatial practice. Leveraging the affordances of Jupyter notebooks and cloud computing, we discuss the design, development, and deployment of introductory lessons in these areas. We report the educational design strategies behind development of these lessons, discuss the technical development and support required to use these in an interactive Jupyter notebook enabled space, and report on the deployment of these lessons in initial classroom testing environments. By sharing components of the entire process in developing Hour of CI lessons, we aim to outline our experiences, share best practices and pitfalls, and consider feedback from initial testing. These results will support other efforts in computer-based STEM education by providing feedback and results from an interwoven, cross-discipline geospatial, GIS, and computer science context.
The ocean plays important roles not only in the global climate system but also in the global material cycling through biogeochemical processes, and has close relationships with the daily lives of people through fisheries, marine energy and resources, ocean transportation, marine sports, ocean relaxation activities, and others. The Ocean Literacy movement began in the U.S. in the early 2000s, and has recently become international as shown by the Ocean Literacy Portal website operated by IOC/UNESCO. In Japan, the present national standard course of study at elementary school has not given any room for ocean education while the Oceanographic Society of Japan (JOS) and 34 other academic societies/committees gave a proposal entitled, “On the Setting up of a class named, ‘the role of Ocean’ in the national standard course of study for the 4th grade students in the elementary science education” to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in April 2016. In the U.S., aiming to serve as a community-based measurement tool that allows the comparison of levels of ocean knowledge across time and location, the International Ocean Literacy Survey (IOLS) project has been started since 2015. Fauville et al. (2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2018.1440381) published the results from IOLS Version 2, and the English version IOLS Version 4 was finalized after reviewing the English IOLS Version 3 by IOLS Advisory Board consisting of international marine researchers, communicators, teachers, and psychometricians. The English version of the IOLS Version 4 was translated into 14 languages (Catalan, Chilean, Dutch, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, Spanish, Tagalog, Thai, and Traditional Chinese) and its field testing was conducted during February and March 2019 with nominal 6945 participants worldwide including nominal 567 participants from Japan. In collaboration with IOLS Version 4 field testing, JOS and the Marine Learning Center took part in correcting the original Japanese draft of IOLS Version 4, sponsored IOLS Version 4 field testing, and made a wide campaign to high-school teachers through sending recommendation letters to academic societies and other ocean-related organizations.
In this project, I study families of deep learning neural networks that are trained on publicly available chest X-ray datasets to identify the best image classification algorithm for automating the diagnosis of respiratory illnesses. Specifically, the learned networks will be used to classify anonymized chest X-ray images to three classes: healthy, COVID-19 and non-COVID pneumonia. As in most real-world applications, publicly available chest X-ray image datasets are not abundant, and ground truth data of COVID-19 diagnosis is especially hard to come by. In this project, the first variable implemented to improve the predictive power of the neural networks is through pretraining on a domain-relevant and much larger than the transfer learning dataset. To address the imbalance within training data, the second variable implemented is to customize the data sampling configuration using the equal-weight-per-epoch method or fixed- fraction-per-batch method. As control for each neural network, pretrained weights learned from the classic ImageNet dataset are used, and no customized training data sampling method is applied. In regard to transfer learning, two scikit-learn functions, average precision and F1 score, are computed during training. Then Precision and Recall are manually calculated based on the confusion matrix for each neural network along with the hyperparameters. The most significant observation is that the Recall metric for the control group is consistently less than 0.6, which is a clear indicator of the underperformance on COVID-19 prediction. The family with significantly higher performance is DenseNet; surprisingly, DenseNet169 has one of the highest Precision and Recall of 0.870 and 0.837. With more than 82 million COVID-19 cases worldwide, the need for efficient, accurate and mass diagnosis of patients is apparent and growing. The utilization of chest X-ray images in medical diagnosis is both a cost-effective and widespread technique for early screening of respiratory illnesses.
As the leading astrobiology university student society, run by students, for students, at the University of Manchester Astrobiology Society we are embarked on a mission to spread the word about astrobiology, enrich the university community by delivering high-quality events and resources, and create a global network of students and young professionals that will become the astrobiologists of tomorrow. Ever since our foundation, we have gone beyond the classic student society activities by inviting world-renowned researchers, creating a dedicated careers program, or even organizing the first student-led online congress at the university. In addition, our innovation team always ensures that we use the latest tools and technologies to keep thriving in our ever-evolving world. In this sense, we have developed an all-in-one website where people interested in astrobiology can discover, learn and connect. Furthermore, we have also built a global community using social media, with almost 3000 followers spread over 17 countries. By leading by example, we want to spark change among student societies and for them to redefine their boundaries and to achieve bigger. At AbSciCon 2022 we aim to further pursue this goal, grow our network, share expertise, and learn from others.
The scientific community is becoming more demographically diverse, and team science is becoming more common. Here, we compare metrics of success in STEM, such as acceptance rates and citations, between differing team compositions regarding nationality, gender, career stage, and race/ethnicity. We collected the final decisions and citations as of 2019 of 91,427 manuscripts submitted from 2012-2018 to journals published by the American Geophysical Union. We matched the authors by email on each manuscript to self-provided demographic information within the American Geophysical Union’s membership database. This resulted in 20,940 manuscripts matched to nation, gender, and career stage, and 6,015 manuscripts matched to race/ethnicity for manuscripts whose entire authorship team was affiliated with the U.S. Among similar sized authorship teams (teams of 2-4), acceptance rates were 2.7, 4.5, and 0.9% higher (pnation < 0.01, pgender < 0.05, pcareer stage = 0.51) with more than one nation, gender, and career stage, respectively, than non-diverse authorship teams. Diverse papers had 1.2 more citations for international teams than single-nation teams (pnation < 0.01). There were 0.4 and 1.0 fewer citations for authorship teams with more than one gender or career stage than manuscripts with one gender or one career stage (pgender = 0.21, pcareer stage = 0.36). However, racially/ethnically diverse teams were associated with 5.5% lower acceptance rates (p < 0.01) and 0.8 fewer citations (p = 0.15) than racially/ethnically homogenous teams. These results show that diversity can have tangible benefits to science, but equitable practices and inclusive cultures must also be fostered.
In Greek mythology, Cassandra was cursed with a prophetic knowledge of the future that no one would believe. The premise of this mythological prophet is also an apt description of the challenge facing scientists in communicating climate change. Central to addressing this challenge is the ability to examine, interpret and understand the individual scaffolding that underlies people's perception of climate change. Human-centered design incorporates a deep assessment of human needs in the design of systems and services, providing an alternative lens to engage in action towards climate change. Over the course of three separate design classes, attracting a diverse array of students from undergraduate to PhD to professional degrees, from engineers to humanists, we have explored the intersection of design education and climate change communication. In Design for a Habitable Planet, students conducted broad unstructured interviews to populate a matrix of beliefs and experiences around climate change, allowing them to bridge a perceived empathy gap. Their subjects included local fisherman, who are experiencing climate change but are ideologically opposed to the concept, and Alaska Native students who are experiencing climate change as part of a larger portfolio of challenges facing their communities. Leveraging theories from behavioral psychology, students then developed and prototyped an array of climate action campaigns, using an array of mediums from Snapchat filters to crowd-sourced climate haiku on beer labels. A unique outcome of the design process was a set of strategies intended to engage voices from all corners of the climate change debate and in turn inspire action. In Design of Data, students were challenged to design a data journalism piece highlighting positive action to address climate change. Students struggled with their pre-conceived negative bias around climate change, but after an examination of their own communities, what emerged were eight compelling stories daylighting positive and collective action to address global change. Ultimately, through our classroom experiments integrating design, behavioral psychology and climate change communication, students have not only learned to engage across differences, but we have developed a first glimpse of the power of design to inspire novel strategies to incite positive action to address climate change.
Whether your scientific presentation is in-person or remote, everyone will understand more of your presentation if it has captions. Like subtitles of a movie, open captioning makes verbal material accessible for many people. A study of BBC television watchers reports that 80% of 15 caption users are not deaf nor hard of hearing (1). During English-spoken scientific presentations, people who are deaf or hard of hearing, people who have auditory processing disorder and not yet fluent non-native English speakers develop listening fatigue that can prohibit their understanding and limit their participation in discussions. Increasing the accessibility of our presentations and improving inclusivity of discussions provides a path 20 towards increasing diversity within sciences. Studies show that subtitles/captioning improve both English language skills (e.g., 2, 3) and accessibility of science for deaf and hard of hearing participants (e.g., 3, 4). Furthermore, not everyone may be in a space where they can access audio, for example, if they are sharing space with other workers. A myriad of tools and platforms can provide captioning for live presentations. Why then don’t 25 we regularly caption presentations? Our resistance may be due to factors such as not knowing or believing that captioning is needed, not knowing how to use these tools, and believing that the resulting captioning will be inadequate. In response to the first reason, folks should not be forced to disclose their disability in order for presentations to be accessible to them. In response to the last two reasons, this article outlines different strategies for providing captions and presents 30 results of our performance assessment of Artificial Intelligence (AI) based auto-caption of jargon rich geologic passages. Because most scientific presentations are delivered using either Microsoft PowerPoint or Google Slides presentation software, we focus our performance assessment on the auto-captioning provided by these platforms. While a variety of tools can add captions to recorded lectures that can be edited to improve accuracy, offering a transcript after a 35 live presentation is not a suitable solution to improve participation. Here we provide evidence-based best-practices for providing captioning that will increase the accessibility of live scientific presentations In-Person Presentations For in-person presentations, trained human captionists or AI-based auto caption/transcription 40 software can provide live captioning (Fig. 1). Captionists use stenography tools to provide
While about 17% of the adult population have significant hearing loss, we remain under-represented within academia outside of the field of Deaf Studies. One primary contributor to the leaky pipeline is lack of mentorship due to the difficulty of deaf and hard of hearing academics in recognizing one another. Hearing loss among non-signers is seldom obvious. Consequently, non-signing deaf and hard of hearing academics at predominantly hearing institutions often remain isolated without guidance on how to manage the myriad of communication challenges facing academics, such as teaching, leading group meetings, addressing questions at conferences, participating in discussions at professional meetings, and serving on grant proposal panels. Adequate solutions are often not available from our hearing health care providers nor from disability services offices, which are mandated and designed to serve undergraduate students. However, the success of all academics depends on mastering these different communication challenges. To fill the mentoring gap, we have started a blog by and for academics at all career stages with some degree of hearing loss called, “The Mind Hears”. This title derives from the Victor Hugo quote “What matters deafness of the ear when the mind hears, the one true deafness, the incurability deafness is that of the mind.” The goals of the blog are: To provide a forum for crowd-sourcing ways to minimize our challenges and share strategies for thriving in academia with hearing loss. To foster a network of deaf and hard of hearing academics who promote hearing inclusive strategies at universities. Through this blog we hope to reach deaf and hard of hearing academics all around the world, and thus reduce isolation in our community and build a community toolbox of resources and ideas. Hearing loss is variable and can affect us in many and different ways – but through this shared blog we hope to provide something of value to all of those who visit and contribute to our discussions.
Community science is a collaboration between scientists and communities including their citizens and their leaders. In this collaboration, the scientists and communities together determine the questions to be studied, the approaches to be taken, and the interpretation of the results. Such a collaboration requires a foundation of scientific literacy within the community to enable both individuals and the community as whole to access the needed scientific understanding and to participate in the scientific process. It also requires that scientists and educators learn about the knowledge, values, norms, and priorities of the communities in which they are working—a kind of scientific community literacy. The EarthConnections Alliance supports the engagement of educational institutions and programs in community science while building community science literacy and scientific community literacy. The EarthConnections Alliance is formed of regional groups that are invested in linking geoscience learning and community service across grade levels within their communities as well as program partners who have expertise needed to create these learning opportunities. All members share a vision of creating learning pathways with four critical elements: 1) they connect opportunities to learn geoscience with opportunities to use this knowledge in service to the local community; 2) they link geoscience learning opportunities and learners across grade levels; 3) they use signposting and mentoring to guide and support students; and 4) they lead to local employment opportunities and geoscience-related careers. Initial funding for EarthConnections explored the creation of regional pathways in diverse sites across the country, the development of strategies and tools for supporting pathway development, and mechanisms for sharing resources and expertise within the Alliance. Over 125 individuals and groups are now engaged in this effort. Further information is available on the EarthConnections website: serc.carleton.edu/EarthConnections.html.
There have been numerous calls to promote reproducible research. This growing awareness coincides with major advances in data/code sharing technologies. Yet authors, journals, institutions, and funders still need to act to advance more reproducible research. Here, we suggest to view reproducibility as a continuum that includes the 1) availability of data, models, code, and directions to use the digital artifacts, 2) replication of results, and 3) reproducibility of findings. We present a simple survey tool to assess where a peer-reviewed journal article lies on the continuum. We use the tool to assess 360 random sampled articles of the 1,989 articles published in 2017 in six well-regarded hydrology and water resources journals. 49% of sampled articles had some materials available online, but just 5.6% made available all the data, models, code, and directions. For 1.6% of articles, we generated results that replicated some or all of the published results. Assessments took 5 to 14 minutes per article to determine the availability of digital artifacts and 25 to 86 minutes to replicate results (25-75% range). The availability of data, models, code, and directions differed by journal and journal policy towards data availability. From the 360 article sample, we estimate that 0.6% to 6.8% of all articles published in the six journals in 2017 can be replicated using their published artifacts (95% confidence interval). These results suggest several practices to improve the reproducibility of published research. First, authors should provide directions to use their data, models, and code in addition to the digital artifacts. Second, on author submission, journals should use a tool like ours to assess the submission’s position on the reproducibility continuum. Third, journals should formulate policies that require authors to state the intended reproducibility of their work and place relevant information in an easy-to-find article location. Fourth, journals, institutions, and funders should highlight work whose digital artifacts, results, and findings are available, replicable, and reproducible.
Grappling with systemic discrimination and bias in geosciences can be overwhelming to the point that one may feel powerless to fix them. Despite the sweeping nature of this challenge, faculty, principal investigators, and other scientists with leadership roles have unparalleled power to mitigate harm in environments they oversee. Here, we identify ways that scientists in these roles can immediately address bias in three common spaces --- the lab, field, and classroom. We highlight key actions that can be taken to improve the quality of life of marginalized students and other trainees quickly, while important but comparatively slow institutional changes proceed.
Climate change poses uncertain, complex, and emerging risks to local governments across the country, particularly in regions prone to flood and storm hazards. While local governments recognize the importance of finding innovative approaches to climate change adaptation, it remains a challenge for many reasons, including the high cost of policy experimentation, lack of organizational capacity, and uncertainty about the efficacy of potential adaptation strategies. These are not merely challenges of technological innovation, but also of social and policy innovation. It is increasingly recognized that collaboration is required to meet these challenges. Collaborations of various types---referred to broadly as policy networks---give organizations access to information, ideas, and other resources that may be used to adapt to climate change. Certain types of networks are hypothesized to be effective for these purposes, particularly networks that span fragmented communities and integrate different knowledge systems and resources. These types of networks tend to reduce information asymmetries and maximize the diversity of information and resources available to network actors, thus increasing capacity to manage uncertain, emerging, and complex problems. In this paper we characterize the policy network surrounding climate change adaptation in Southeast Florida that includes municipal actors as well as a diverse array of stakeholders in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. Data are gathered using a survey of organizational representatives in the region, identified though systematic searches of organizational websites as well as nominations by other climate change professionals. Overall this study shows a complex web of collaborations where over 300 diverse actors are exchanging information about climate change and sharing resources to address adaptation. Findings demonstrate that county governments and regional nonprofit organizations, such as the Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact, play a crucial role in linking disparate resources and knowledge systems in the region. These organizations help to stabilize network ties within a complex and rapidly shifting political landscape, making them instrumental for the delivery of climate adaptation services.
The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) is a data management system that provides researchers with a variety of tools to help manage data throughout the lifecycle of a project. GRIIDC was developed to fulfill the requirement that all Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) funded researchers make their data publicly available. After seven years of operation and over 1,900 datasets available for download, GRIIDC has encountered many challenges, including data organization issues, researchers’ varied experience with technology, and hesitance to share data. In 2016, GRIIDC began hosting training webinars to help researchers navigate the system, submit quality data and metadata, and provide data organization best practices. As the quality of data and metadata improved, GRIIDC determined that these webinars could mitigate previous issues. In 2017, the GoMRI data policy was updated requiring that each newly funded research consortium or individual investigator complete three training sessions within specific dates of their grant agreement. The training sessions included an introduction to the GoMRI data management program, organizing data – best practices and GRIIDC submission, and how to submit data to GRIIDC. The training sessions were offered by webinar and as workshops presented at the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill & Ecosystem Science conference. After hosting over 50 webinars, offering six workshops, and training 260 researchers, GRIIDC encountered a few issues with the required training including having to schedule individual webinars to accommodate researcher’s schedules, low attention rates, and diverse attitudes and experiences sharing data. Improvements were identified such as using software to track presentation views, making webinars more interactive, hosting additional in-person workshops, requiring a quiz at the end of the training, and allowing researchers the ability to test out of training. Even with the issues identified, GRIIDC is hopeful that the training will help researchers provide quality data submissions not only for the remaining GoMRI projects but for data they will generate in the future.
Geotechnical engineering and geology faculty at Drexel and Villanova Universities and a graduate teaching assistant collaborated with an environmental hydrogeologist from a local civil engineering firm to develop a field trip for their undergraduate engineering geology courses. At Villanova, Geology for Engineers is required for all civil and environmental engineering students. Similarly, at Drexel, Geologic Principles for Infrastructure & Environmental Engineering is a required course for all civil, architectural and environmental engineering students. The learning goal of both courses is to have students understand how basic topics in geology and geomorphology apply to civil and environmental engineering practice. The field trip focuses on the core elements of the courses: the importance of rock type on engineering properties, the effects of plate tectonics and weathering on rocks, and the interaction of human activity with the lithosphere and hydrosphere. The team selected Wissahickon Valley Park as the location for the field trip because it provides a dynamic stream ecosystem within a geologically diverse setting that has been highly impacted by urban development of the surrounding City of Philadelphia. The engineering aspects bring novelty into an established practice of classical geology field trips. In addition to examining outcrops and evidence of geologic processes, the students were required to critically identify engineering issues associated with the infrastructure in the valley, storm water management, and the impact of development on the stream valley. From anonymous surveys disseminated after the first offering of the field trip, students indicated the trip had enriched their learning experience, improved their ability to apply basic geology knowledge in a real-world context, and increased their interest in how rock, soil, water, and climate play roles in infrastructure engineering. Without exception, the students agreed that the field trip should be offered again. This presentation will describe the development of the collaboration between the educators and practitioners, the resulting field trip and materials that have been adopted at both universities. We will also update the surveys’ results from two more trips of the fall of 2018.
Author networks play a key role in doing science. Developing networks is critical for career advancement in a wide variety of ways, and differences in networks may be a core reason for persistence of implicit gender bias. Combining the AGU Fall Meeting abstracts from 2014-2018 with self-identified AGU member data on birth year and gender provides a large database of more than 400,000 unique co-author interactions that we use to examine author networks by age, gender, and country. Age data are necessary to disambiguate the effect that a historic lack of women in the Earth and space science. The data show that women’s networks are closer to those expected from the age-gender distribution of the overall membership; whereas networks of men include more men than expected, although women are also interacting with men of similar age more than expected from the membership. Women’s networks are also less international than their male colleagues in most age cohorts. These differences start in the youngest age cohort. These data indicate that addressing implicit bias requires efforts at encouraging and developing more balanced author networks, particularly in early-career scientists. Recent work suggest that this will also improve science outputs.
Field trips, camps, and courses are considered a critical experience in the education of future geoscientists. Traditional bedrock geologic mapping continues to play a prominent role in field courses and a robust body of research describes how students gain content, skills, habits of mind, social engagement, and identity as a geologist in field settings. However, little work has examined instructional practices that lead to meaningful learning of geologic mapping. During a semi-structured interview, we asked 67 novice to professional geologists to reflect on how and where they learned geologic mapping. When analyzed through the lens of situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger 1991), responses from these geologists shed light on best practices for mapping instruction in field settings. Our findings highlight two contrasting forms of instruction and the importance of a community of practice. In structured instruction, students and instructors worked together through a prescribed learning progression. Conversely, in ill-structured instruction participants described receiving little guidance on how to progress. Overall, our participants reflected positively on learning experiences that built upon sufficient prior knowledge, allowed for some struggle but included generous instructor support, and provided the opportunity to work collaboratively with other learners. Our participants found regular feedback to be highly beneficial. We suggest that appropriate activities and assessments that encourage both teamwork (collaboration) and independent studies should be incorporated into field instruction. Additionally, the results of our study suggest that the community of practice is a crucial contributor to learning to map and that the learning is defined as much by the professional domain shared between novices and experts as it is by the physical domain provided by the complex Earth environment. In order for a learner to be authentically involved in the actual practice of an expert, the learner must work with and learn from the community of practice.
The total population of Ghana has tripled between 1960 and 2015. During the same period, the urban population, however, grew more than 11 times. Rapid urbanization and large increase in population dramatically changed the land cover of the West African country. For example, agricultural land expanded from occupying 13% in mid-1970s to more than a third of Ghana’s total land area today. In the meantime, forests and savannas face a huge pressure of being converted to agricultural or urban land uses. The Ghana Land Use Project (GALUP) aims at enhancing the country’s capacity in dealing with these challenges. The project engages both institutions and government agencies in Ghana to deliver a series of training workshops focused on remote sensing and geospatial technologies that can facilitate the formulation of sustainable land use plans. In-person workshops were planned initially, but because of travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the first GALUP workshop—Land-Use Suitability Analysis with QGIS Tools—was conducted online. Such means of capacity building presented an exceptional opportunity to explore novel methods for transferring knowledge while also forging strong partnerships that are easier with in-person meetings. The 3-month long workshop was delivered in a hybrid mode featuring synchronous and asynchronous components. This hybrid mode was unusual for both trainers and the 41 trainees from four organizations including the Land Use and Spatial Planning Authority (LUSPA), the Center for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Services (CERSGIS), the International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the Agro-Hydrological and Meteorological Centre (AGRHYMET) in Niger. The synchronous component involved weekly meetings and discussion session, and the asynchronous component consisted of a GitHub repository. The repository contained (a) fourteen open-source GIS tools developed for land-use suitability modeling, (b) a discussion channel for Q&A and idea-sharing, and (c) four modules of training materials, each equipped with customized videos and multiple exercises to boost the learning process. The repository has received over 13,000 views since the beginning of the workshop.