Accentuating Student Performance in a Hydrology Class The author has successfully used student centered performance pedagogy to enhance student learning in a Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology Class. In this particular research activity, he has used Socratic Inquisition Techniques to enhance student learning. He presents detailed analysis of the data he has collected to examine and determine how student performance can be accentuated and improved. Socratic Inquisition is based on Critical thinking and Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and several different definitions exist. However, one can generally view it as “unbiased analysis or expressive evaluation of factual evidence.” Scholars agree that Critical thinking must be self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective procedure. This helps the students to become independent learners and be enthusiastic to expand their knowledge base. Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology is a junior level course that is based on providing a mathematical base for building the needed knowledge for a variety of subsequent engineering courses. The main objective has been to instill effective communication skills among students and to enhance problem-solving abilities. The author is satisfied with the results gathered, however he sees lots of areas for improvement of student learning. Based on the research data collected, the author has concluded that the method of Critical Thinking actually motivates the students to take ownership of learning. This is definitely a useful path for Accentuating Student Performance in a Fluid Mechanics and Hydrology Class. References 1. Gardner, Howard (2000). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic. 2. Keefe, J. W. (1991). Learning style: Cognitive and thinking skills. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals. 3. Lage, M. J.,Platt, G. J. & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. Journal of Economic Education.
Without water no energy, significant trade-offs between carbon and water footprints important for global energy and water policy Winnie Gerbens-Leenes1*, Junguo Liu2 1 Integrated Research on Energy, Environment and Society (IREES), University of Groningen, Nijenborg 6, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands; firstname.lastname@example.org 2. Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech), Shenzhen, China; email@example.com Water and energy are strongly related. Water supply needs energy and energy supply needs water. The focus of the pre-2009 water for energy studies was mainly on the quantification of cooling water use in thermoelectric generation and on water use for transport fuel production. Most of the studies were based on grey literature using data from industry, often from the USA. Water footprint (WF) studies have made it possible to quantify water for bioenergy and hydropower, because the assessments were made based on publically available data, e.g. weather data. WF studies provided new information on the amount of water needed for specific renewable energy types. Energy that originates from photosynthesis (e.g. crops, trees or algae) has relatively large water footprints compared to fossil energy sources. Energy that originates from hydropower also has large average WFs, but variation is large. This paper gives an overview of the contribution of water footprint studies on water for energy relationships. It first explains why water is needed for energy, gives an overview of important water-energy studies until 2009, shows the contribution of WF studies, and indicates how this contribution has supported new research. Finally, it provides knowledge gaps that are relevant for future studies. Energy source categories are: 1. biofuels from sugar, starch and oil crops (food crops); 2. cellulosic feedstocks (residues and energy crops); 3. biofuels from algae; 4. firewood; 5. hydropower and 6. various sources of energy including electricity, heat and transport fuels. Especially category 1, 3, 4, 5 and to a lesser extent 2 have relatively large WFs. This is because the energy source derives from agriculture or forestry, which has a large water use (1,2,4), or has large water use due to evaporation from open water surfaces (3,5). WFs for these categories can be calculated using the WF tool. Category 6 includes fossil fuels and renewables, such as photovoltaics and wind energy and has relatively small WFs. However, information needs to be derived from industry. The policy to decrease carbondioxide emissions has consequences for water. Energy policies need to account for significant trade-offs between carbon, land and water footprints.
This work presents system concepts, integration efforts and results of the incorporation of recent advances in geospatial technologies, including augmented reality, virtual reality and unmanned aerial systems (UAS), into teaching and learning in the geosciences. Descriptions include the exploration of multiple technological alternatives and introduce system design and integration to enhance and innovate instructional materials in classrooms. The 3D Immersion and Geovisualization (3DIG) system, implemented at the Center for Geospatial Research at the University of Georgia incorporates augmented/customized commercial-off-the-shelf solutions for data acquisition, visualization and human-machine interaction. Through the immersive capabilities of 3DIG, students can be involved in a full data acquisition-processing-analysis workflow. Data streams are used for system integration, with emphasis to model generation/manipulation and remote sensing applications, including multispectral data acquisition/analyses, structure-from-motion based point-cloud/model generation, DEM and texture extraction, and orthomosaics. Resulting products are used with virtual and mixed reality holographic devices, a Geographic Information System (GIS) and with game engines (Unreal Engine and Unity) to create realistic multi-scale multi-theme 3D reconstructions of planet Earth, landscapes and/or objects. Among other system components, an augmented reality digital sandbox equipped with two depth cameras supports experiential learning and experimentation involving scaled down replicas of landscapes or user-defined topographies. The system allows for fast representation of landscape changes (near-real time response), which simulates fluid flow over modified terrain, as well as quantitative analyses, modeling and what-if scenarios through the integration with a GIS. The 3DIG system has been incorporated into classwork and results have been evaluated. This work introduces the interconnected and complementary technologies of 3DIG; presents lessons learned during system design; introduces system implementation and evolution (including the recent integration of new components); describes system use for hands-on and immersive experiential learning; and discusses system evaluation.
This summer, The GLOBE Program brought 56 students from 13 different countries to Howell Nature Center near Detroit, Michigan for a camp-like experience. The majority of the students in attendance had been chosen to attend and received funding for receiving top scores from local US and international virtual science symposia and presented their research at a poster session prior to attending the nature center experience. Between campfire s’mores and nature walks, the students were asked to collect data and create research projects. Having little more instruction than “use the equipment provided and stay within sight,” the students self-selected mixed age (10-19), gender, and nationality groups; formulated their own research questions to examine the local environment (a small lake, the surrounding trees, and contaminated tap water); and created high quality presentations using the data they collected over two days. The diversity of the questions that the students researched reflected the diversity of the groups themselves and explored topics surrounding water health, land use, and human health. The success of this experience lends itself to make a great case study for allowing students the creative freedom and control to create their research projects, especially in non-classroom settings such as summer camps and outdoor education centers. By combining data collection with recreational activities, in this case kayaks and canoes, removing the structure of a traditional classroom setting, and giving the students complete control over their projects, the students had fun and engaged in their research in a more memorable way.
Ocean governance is characterised by social-ecological complexity and divergence in stakeholder values and perspectives. Meeting the challenges set out in the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development will require transdisciplinary approaches that can embrace multiple ways of knowing to develop shared understandings within interdependent communities of practice and ensure they can be applied in interventions that are adaptive, proactive, socially just, critically reflexive and fit to meet the Decade’s challenges. We present the outcomes of an innovative participatory art process, the Exquisite Corpse Project, with the aim of highlighting multiple perspectives, and developing empathy between participants. We will engage a selected group of researchers from the emerging ‘Ocean Art-Ocean Science’ community to explore the topic of marine heatwaves and their impacts based on data collected in the Northeast Pacific by Ocean Networks Canada and other sources. Through a facilitated process, participants will create three pieces of art that will build on each other and will be exchanged between participants. At the end, all created artworks will be reviewed by the full group to explore emerging insights on marine heatwaves and to surface participants’ underlying values and emotions, which is rarely done in scientific circles where the main mode of discourse employs rational dispassionate exchange. By creating a fun, emotionally-engaging process, we aim to show how the Exquisite Corpse project can strengthen interpersonal bonds, build social cohesion, create opportunities to surface people’s values and perspectives, and develop new transdisciplinary insights in a non-confrontational way. This study is part of an ongoing process exploring transdisciplinary approaches for multidirectional art-science collaborations and developing new research methods for including artistic insight and expression within the scientific discovery process. Instead of the conventional ‘outward looking’ strategy of many art-science projects translating scientific outputs to new formats, our approach is primarily ‘inward looking’. We aim to provide an opportunity for scientists to create art, thus allowing them to explore their own emotions, values and experiences through different ways of knowing.
The Open Global Glacier Model (http://oggm.org) is an open source modelling framework, helping various research groups to simulate and understand mountain glacier change at the regional or global scale. OGGM is modular, which means that we encourage users to develop their own physical parameterizations while staying compatible with the OGGM workflow. To achieve this goal, we need OGGM to be easy to understand, install, apply, and extend. In this presentation, I will talk about how we make use of the wealth of open-source tools available in the python and Jupyter ecosystems to provide an online documentation platform for OGGM. Our documentation combines text with interactive examples that run in your web browser, avoiding the typical installation and data download burden for newcomers. With selected examples from the collaborative educational content platform OGGM-Edu (http://edu.oggm.org), I will show how anyone can apply these ideas and tools to their own documentation or outreach project. Finally, I will talk about some of the challenges faced by the OGGM project in its pursuit of becoming a community model. With the increasing pressure on geoscientists who have to learn new complex technologies while navigating the “publish or perish” career model, the growing demand for better open science practices can be a blessing as well as a curse for many early career scientists.
During the 21st century, human–environment interactions will increasingly expose both systems to risks, but also yield opportunities for improvement as we gain insight into these complex coupled-systems. Human–environment interactions operate over multiple spatial and temporal scales, requiring large data volumes of multi-resolution information for analysis. Climate change, land-use change, urbanization, and wildfires, for example, can affect regions differently depending on ecological and socioeconomic structures. The relative scarcity of data on both humans and natural systems at the relevant extent can be prohibitive when pursuing inquiries into these complex relationships. We explore the value of multitemporal, high-density, and high-resolution LiDAR, imaging spectroscopy, and digital camera data from the National Ecological Observatory Network’s Airborne Observation Platform (NEON AOP) for Socio-Environmental Systems (SES) research. We outline specific applications for addressing SES questions, highlight current challenges, and provide recommendations for the SES research community to improve and expand its use of this platform for SES research. The coordinated, nationwide AOP remote sensing data, collected annually over the next 30 years, offer exciting opportunities for cross-site analyses and comparison, upscaling metrics derived from LiDAR and hyperspectral datasets across larger spatial extents, and addressing questions across diverse scales. Integrating AOP data with other SES datasets will allow researchers to investigate complex systems and provide urgently needed policy recommendations for socio-environmental challenges. We urge the research community to further explore interdisciplinary questions and theories that might leverage NEON AOP data, and present a new Research Coordination Network aimed at supporting these efforts.
Though fascinating and multi-disciplinary in scientific horizon, Astrobiology, till date has not managed to make a commendable mark in Indian academia which raises the need of not reformation but transformation in the education system. As per our recent survey, 30.88% of 2455 participants claimed to have heard about Astrobiology for the first time, 47.01% reported to have scant knowledge, and 22.12% were familiar. In addition, the data suggests that more than 77% of enthusiasts have no access to proper guidance and resources to pursue a career in Astrobiology. Hence, to tackle such issues, Spaceonova conducted free webinars and two day workshops in collaboration with 13 renowned institutions in India like IIST, DU, VIT etc., that impacted 3869 students across 700+ unique colleges. Such an initiative introduced them to the various career opportunities in the field of Astrobiology using Bioinformatics tools like Artemis and RasMol to carry out independent in-silico analysis. To carry the momentum forward, Spaceonova seeks to collaborate with various organisations to introduce research driven Astrobiology clubs, training programmes and diplomas in India to create an Astrobiology ecosystem, where limit tends to infinity. Here, we have discussed the required methodologies and blueprint to execute the same.
This article provides a commentary about the state of Integrated, equitable outcomes. GeoHealth research both characterizes and predicts problems at the nexus of earth and human systems like climate change, pollution, and natural hazards. While GeoHealth excels in the area of integrated science, there is a need to improve coordinated and networked efforts to produce open science that is for and with frontline populations that are disproportionately marginalized by environmental injustice or unequal protection from environmental harms and lack of access and meaningful engagement in decision-making for a healthy environment (EPA). GeoHealth practice has the opportunity to advance environmental justice or the “fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income” with respect to how research and collaboration of GeoHealth professionals supports the “development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies” that produce equal protection from environmental and health hazards and access to the decision-making for a health environment (EPA). Here we highlight barriers and opportunities to apply an equity-centered ICON framework to the field of GeoHealth to advance environmental justice and health equity.
With the increasing volume of data generated in agriculture, developing guidelines for appropriate data sharing and management is essential. Founded in 2015, the AgBioData Consortium aims to identify the current major issues in data curation and management and ensure more Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) data. In 2021 we received funding from the National Science Foundation for a Research Coordination Network grant, whose main goals are: (1) make recommendations and implementation plans for FAIR data in agriculture; (2) expand the AgBioData network by recruiting key stakeholders in agricultural research; (3) provide educational material to train researchers on FAIR data sharing; and (4) develop a roadmap for a sustainable genomic, genetic and breeding (GGB) Database Ecosystem. We have started by launching nine working groups covering different aspects of data management in agriculture and recruitment. We also plan new groups focused on sharing and archiving new types of data, such as those generated with high-throughput phenotyping platforms. As plant phenomics becomes a major part of agriculture, we foresee opportunities to collectively identify best data management practices in current and future phenomics repositories to ensure that phenomics data is FAIR from the start. We are welcoming new members with expertise in the field. If you are interested in joining, please visit our website (https://www.agbiodata.org).
Understanding marine soundscapes, including the biological, anthropogenic, and geological sounds, is essential to conserving protected species and their habitats. However, the marine resource managers often do not have a strong science background to interpret complicated soundscape data to facilitate them making decisions. The biological components of soundscapes can be useful to characterize biodiversity and monitor the distribution and behavior of individual species. Anthropogenic sound in the ocean is increasing and has been recognized as a threat to marine mammals for decades. To help the marine resource managers and the general public understand the impacts of ocean noise, we as nine undergraduate students from different majors of study at UC Berkeley’s Fung Fellowship Program utilized Human-Centered Design and created an interactive marine soundscape map (https://calsound.herokuapp.com), focusing on the California Current Ecosystem. Based on 14 interviews we conducted with researchers, policymakers, and environmental lobbyists, we decided to portray spectral soundscape metrics alongside the context of animal and human activities in a map format. We then created a digital hub to easily visualize, analyze, and synthesize marine-sourced soundscape data. Our website displays soundscape data over a range of spatial and temporal scales, acoustic detections of marine mammals, species habitat models, and anthropogenic sound source distributions as heat map layers and graphs. The platform not only displays ocean soundscape data, but also provides an overview of marine soundscape technology, as well as related articles and websites. The website is designed so that users who are not familiar with marine soundscape data, such as coastal managers and the public, can guide themselves through a tutorial and explore on their own to gain a better understanding of oceanographic sound. In the future, we will add more features to the website, such as allowing users to upload their own data to the website to visualize them online. The website will be self-sustainable and continue to serve more people. Our website will facilitate people to visualize and understand marine soundscapes, their impacts and our solutions.
Xavier University of Louisiana, in collaboration with the Institute of Earth Science Research and Education (IESRE) run the ECoSTEM project. This project aims to improve the quality of undergraduate STEM education by introducing a computational, community-oriented component into STEM programs at Xavier University. Specifically, undergraduate students develop microcontroller-based systems for collecting airborne particulate data. They work with public school teachers (and their students) and Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (LDEQ) officers to deploy the sensors at locations around New Orleans and to analyze the resulting data. Airborne particulates are often the pollutant of greatest concern in minority and other underserved communities. This project provide undergraduates at Xavier and the local teachers (and their students) with learning experiences that are relevant to them and their communities. ECoSTEM uses a tiered mentoring system in which the project team members mentor undergraduates, who in turn work with public school teachers and mentor their students. Research has shown positive effects from student involvement in such real-world, personally relevant STEM projects, including increases in student interest in STEM-related careers after graduation. As a result, the project has the potential to broaden student interest in STEM and increase pursuit of STEM-related majors.
With shore-fast sea ice disappearing along the coast of the Chukchi Sea causing winds with deep snow drifts, variable snowpack in Bristol Bay in Alaska, and winters without snow in West Central Montana, youth from these areas have personal stories of environmental changes witnessed firsthand. In a virtual “Dirty Snow” citizen science STEM engagement program that met weekly for 5-weeks, middle and high school youth across different time zones and cultures shared such snow stories, implemented a protocol to measure light absorbing particles (LAPs) in snow, and conducted their own Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) snowpack and pH investigations. Teachers, parents and researchers teamed up to support students as they asked their own questions about how LAPs affect their local communities and measured, collected, filtered, and analyzed snow samples. Students learned that LAPs in snow affect the Earth’s climate system by reducing snow reflectivity, affecting albedo. On a local scale, LAPs capture heat energy leading to snow loss. Students wondered if LAPs also affect water quality. Middle school students from Shishmaref, Alaska (located on an island in the Chukchi Sea) selected snow sampling locations in areas important to their community’s resilience to climate change, such as the sole water supply lagoon. The Shishmaref students shared their results with their community, showcased their project in both the GLOBE International Virtual Science Symposium and a tribal climate resilience webinar, and have been featured in the July 2021 Association of Women in Science Magazine issue on sustainability and innovation. In this session, we will share the lessons learned from multiple perspectives - including surveyed youth participants - on conducting a remote synchronous and asynchronous STEM and climate resilience engagement on a short timescale.
The search for life in the universe can inspire students and members of the public alike. Three projects are described which provide an immersive experience with astrobiology. The first is teaching astrobiology to non-science majors in the virtual world Second Life. Second Life can support authentic learning and foster cross-cultural competencies. In the next iteration of the course, students will create simulations of exoplanet landscapes and architectures of exoplanetary systems. The second project is a virtual reality exhibit for education and outreach. It has models of major facilities in astronomy and space science in a virtual space. Users wear Oculus Quest headsets and use game controllers to navigate. Next additions to the VR space will be examples of exoplanet science and fully animated exoplanet systems. The third project is a new version of a multimedia performance piece called StellarScape, combining original electronic music, dance and simulations of star birth. A live dancer interacts with simulations via sensors. The next version is PlanetScape, where back-projected video is a series of realistically rendered exoplanet surfaces. The dancer undertakes a “hero’s journey,” experiencing the altered gravity and physical conditions of alien planets as they try to find their way home.
Course Based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) are an effective method of teaching students not only content, but also critical thinking, scientific practice, and other skills beneficial to their education and success. They lower the barrier to participation in undergraduate research, thereby increasing access to entry. Thus, CUREs are especially valuable to under-performing students as they are an effective means of bridging the achievement gap. Due to the value and effectiveness of CUREs in student development, Lynn University has implemented a means by which students are exposed to CUREs and skills necessary to complete a CURE throughout the Environmental Studies major curriculum. This presentation will give a description of the curriculum and how CUREs and CURE-required skills are taught throughout the curriculum culminating in a fully independent capstone research project.
Engaging high school students in authentic scientific investigations is essential for increasing scientific literacy. Teachers often resort to using textbooks and in-class laboratory experiences that emphasize facts but leave students feeling disengaged. Additional challenges are often added to trying to teach STEM content effectively to students for whom English is not their first language. A collaborative partnership between the author, a former educator who now is an Education and Outreach Specialist with NASA, and a high school teacher who works with underserved students for whom English is not their native language, was formed in order to offer authentic STEM experiences in a public-school setting. They explored the many resources within The GLOBE Program and the GLOBE Observer app, and decided to use these to build the structure around an elective STEM course for 11th grade students. Students learned how NASA satellite data is being used to better understand Earth’s systems and to gather data to help us monitor our changing climate. They used the GLOBE Observer “tools” (Mosquito Habitat Mapper, Trees, Land Cover) as well as several GLOBE atmosphere protocols (precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture) to monitor ongoing environmental conditions. Students formed investigative teams and worked with NASA scientists and data as they designed and conducted research to explore the impact of environmental conditions on active mosquito seasonality and types of mosquitoes, tree growth, and land cover in their schoolyard. They also communicated regularly with other students who were collecting similar data in different countries around the world to compare and contrast the impact of these environmental variables. The goal is for students to submit their research results to GLOBE’s “International Virtual Science Symposium” and also share their projects at their county-level science fair.
Emergency Action Plan for Flash Flood Due to Dambreak - Case study: Shahrchai Dam, Urmia (Iran) Seyed M. Heidaria, Seyed Jalal Heidarib a Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. (SeyedMHeidari@gmail.com) b Department of Civil Engineering, Betasaze Corporation, Mashhad, Iran. (firstname.lastname@example.org) Abstract: A large number of dams have been built on the upstream of residential regions. Flash flood from these dams’ failure is a constant threat to the thousands of lives and million-dollar municipal facilities in downstream. Therefore, it is crucial to identify potentially flooded areas and develop an early warning system for downstream cities to mitigate the loss of life and financial damages. We prepared an emergency action plan (EAP) for flash floods in Iran for the first time in this work. Shahrchai Dam was selected as the case study since it is a large dam with a 220 million m2 capacity reservoir and is located close to a large city, Urmia, with 667,000 population and more than 197,000 households. We used HEC-RAS to model dambreak for two scenarios, piping and overtopping. ArcGIS was employed to identify flooded regions in downstream. The escape time was estimated based on the time that first waves reach residential zones. Time was 170 and 140 minutes for the piping and overtopping scenario, respectively. Water depth and water velocity were mapped for each scenario for flooded areas in downstream to identify secure shelters. EAP was developed for residential, commercial, and municipal buildings located in the flooded areas. Nine hospitals, four hotels, six mosques, more than ten municipal buildings, 54 public, and private schools, and five universities are determined within the flooded regions and considered in the EAP. We divided these regions into five categories, with three to five subcategories based on population and building types. For each subcategory, we identified an evacuation plan with detailed guidelines for residents and involved municipal organizations to avoid chaotic behaviors, which usually happens during flash floods. Results from this study are useful for educating people to be prepared for disasters like flash floods. Municipal policymakers can also use the findings to legislate required rules to protect urban areas from future floods and reduce associated fatality and financial costs. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to appreciate Sharif University of Technology and Dr. Fardin Jafarzadeh for their supports.
An NSF EarthCube-funded project supported a field-based workshop designed to evaluate and refine the sedimentology/stratigraphy portion of the StraboSpot digital data management system. Eleven academics attended the workshop, representing a spectrum of career levels and specialties. The participants teach classes in sedimentology and conduct sedimentary research, but had not used any previous digital mobile apps in the field. The field component focused on learning the basic functionality of the StraboSpot app as a method of collecting digital data in the field. On the first day, teams of 2-3 participants measured a stratigraphic section in a highly visited locality of the well-studied Book Cliffs of central Utah. Teams saw how the vocabulary and spot functionality worked to collect sedimentary field data and to generate stratigraphic columns. The second day was spent measuring a more complex mixed carbonate-clastic sequence in the San Rafael Swell (Utah). Half of the third day was spent in discussion on major issues with workflow/vocabulary and getting feedback on how to simplify and streamline descriptive data collection functions (stratal attributes), and reviewing the more challenging interpretation functions (processes, depositional environments, and architecture). A major discussion point was how best to handle data collection and stratigraphic plotting of ‘interbedded’ intervals. As a result of the workshop, we streamlined workflow options and refined portions of the vocabulary. This field testing followed up on two previous workshops that solicited expert advice to develop the program categories and basic vocabulary for the sedimentary community. Overall, workshop participants were enthusiastic about the potential of digital data systems, and the ability to link annotated photographs and sketches to georeferenced localities. All participants indicated they were inclined to use StraboSpot in both teaching and research, particularly with versatile and customizable options.