In 2014, media artist Daniela de Paulis first presented at ASTRON in The Netherlands the possibility of radio-transmission of brain activity as part of her project ‘’COGITO in Space”, for which laboratory-grade EEG recordings are analyzed and converted to sound in real-time, using an open-source interstellar EEG-transmission protocol designed for the project by Guillaume Dumas and Michael Sanders and integrated in the EEGsynth fieldtrip software package. The 25m dish antenna of the Dwingeloo radio telescope in The Netherlands instantly transmits this audio-stream into space while the participant’s brain activity is recorded. The antenna uses amateur radio equipment, with a SingleSideBand (SSB) 120W power transmission with a fixed dish position. By spreading transmissions over the sky chances of possible detection by an alien civilization are limited. One of the challenges of the project was the real-time conversion of 32-channel EEG into a mono 3kHz audio signal for a linear SSB modulated radio transmission, including the 3D electrode positions that would allow the reconstruction of the cortical activity and topography by a hypothetical receiver.
The advocacy activities necessary to sustain healthy watersheds and improve impaired ones ultimately rely on the democratic process, and therefore depend on a public that values our coastal resources and understands the role that water quality plays in maintaining that value. We contend that an opportunity exists to improve the temporal and spatial density of monitoring by reducing the cost of collecting measurements, while simultaneously fostering an informed and invested public. We envision a distributed water quality monitoring sensor network, composed of low-cost ($1000-$2000) profiling devices we call TideRiders, built and operated by private citizens and local educational organizations and supported by an institution-hosted centralized data and control portal. The TideRider concept engages the public not just in the collection of data but also in the building, deployment, operation, and recovery of these robot sensors. TideRiders will carry a suite of basic water quality instrumentation (temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen), transmit data and accept commands over the cellular network, and can sample surface and bottom waters by surfacing and submerging on a programmable schedule. Operators will harness tidal currents to move their TideRiders deliberately around an embayment, essentially by surfacing in a favorable tide and anchoring on the bottom in an adverse tide. A network of TideRiders deployed in tidally-dominated estuaries like Buzzards Bay and Narragansett Bay could provide basic water quality data at several-hour intervals for weeks at a time by “virtually mooring” in center-bay locations that are otherwise only accessible by boat and therefore typically sampled less frequently than shore stations. We present preliminary field results from a series of prototypes designed and built by students. The prototype devices utilize a novel low-cost semi-passive shallow-water buoyancy engine and were constructed for less than $1000 in parts.
This article is composed of three independent commentaries about the state of ICON principles (Goldman et al. 2021) in the AGU Biogeosciences section and discussion on the opportunities and challenges of adopting them. Each commentary focuses on a different topic: Global collaboration, technology transfer and application (Section 2), Community engagement, citizen science, education, and stakeholder involvement (Section 3), and Field, experimental, remote sensing, and real-time data research and application (Section 4). We discuss needs and strategies for implementing ICON and outline short- and long-term goals. The inclusion of global data and international community engagement are key to tackle grand challenges in biogeosciences. Although recent technological advances and growing open-access information across the world have enabled global collaborations to some extent, several barriers ranging from technical to organizational to cultural have remained in advancing interoperability and tangible scientific progress in biogeosciences. Overcoming these hurdles is necessary to address pressing large-scale research questions and applications in the biogeosciences, where ICON principles are essential. Here, we list several opportunities for ICON, including coordinated experimentation and field observations across global sites, that are ripe for implementation in biogeosciences as a means to scientific advancements and social progress.
Science Centers and Museums are indeed becoming communication hubs for many research areas, including, of course, Earth and Environmental Sciences. Over the last decades numerous new channels have opened for two-way communication and museums have embraced them enthusiastically, promoting dialogue and participation. The incorporation of citizen science, for example, into exhibitions and programming is one of the most recent trends in this direction. Often the question arises, however, of what such activities have to do with the objects and exhibits in the museum, and this perceived disconnect is used as an objection against such activities, which end up being considered as simple contingent add-ons that could just as well be done elsewhere, instead of necessary elements of museum communication. I will present a vision of museum communication that integrates such activities as part of its narrative, as long as they are incorporated using the unique and specific power of the language of exhibitions, a.k.a. the museographic language. To do so I ask the question: what is the museographic language good at communicating? In other words – what do museums communicate? If we center the answer around the concept of “phenomena” or “processes” we will be able to see how museum objects as well as interactive exhibits and a whole range of participatory activities can be successfully combined into a unique mode of communication through exhibitions that complements other channels in the ecosystem of science communication. While there are many scientific disciplines that can be communicated well using primarily collections of objects, other research areas, like Earth and Environmental Sciences need to extend their communication in Science Centers and Museums to include phenomena or processes (as well as objects) in order to actively engage audiences and harness their participation to shape the future of research and of science in society. I will share practical examples and recommendations for these disciplines.
Inequalities persist in the geosciences. White women and people of color remain under-represented at all levels of academic faculty, including positions of power such as departmental and institutional leadership. While the proportion of women among geoscience faculty has been catalogued previously, new programs and initiatives aimed at improving diversity, focused on institutional factors that affect equity in the geosciences, necessitate an updated study and a new metric for quantifying the biases that result in under-representation . We compile a dataset of 2,531 tenured and tenure-track geoscience faculty from 62 universities in the United States to evaluate the proportion of women by rank and discipline. We find that 27% of faculty are women. The fraction of women in the faculty pool decreases with rank, as women comprise 46% of assistant professors, 34% of associate professors, and 19% of full professors. We quantify the attrition of women in terms of a fractionation factor, which describes the rate of loss of women along the tenure track and allows us to move away from the metaphor of the ‘leaky pipeline’. Efforts to address inequities in institutional culture and biases in promotion and hiring practices over the past few years may provide insight into the recent positive shifts in fractionation factor. Our results suggest a need for 1:1 hiring between men and women to reach gender parity. Due to significant disparities in race, this work is most applicable to white women, and our use of the gender binary does not represent gender diversity in the geosciences.
Seismology focuses on the study of earthquakes and associated phenomena to characterize seismic sources and Earth structure, which both are of immediate relevance to society. This article is composed of two independent views on the state of the ICON principles (Goldman et al., 2021) in seismology and reflects on the opportunities and challenges of adopting them from a different angle. Each perspective focuses on a different topic. Section 1 deals with the integration of multiscale and multidisciplinary observations, focusing on integrated and open approaches, whereas Section 2 discusses computing and open-source algorithms, reflecting coordinated, networked, and open principles. In the past century, seismology has benefited from two co-existing technological advancements - the emergence of new, more capable sensory systems and affordable and distributed computing infrastructure. Integrating multiple observations is a crucial strategy to improve the understanding of earthquake hazards. However, current efforts in making big datasets available and manageable lack coherence, which makes it challenging to implement initiatives that span different communities. Building on ongoing advancements in computing, machine learning algorithms have been revolutionizing the way of seismic data processing and interpretation. A community-driven approach to code management offers open and networked opportunities for young scholars to learn and contribute to a more sustainable approach to seismology. Investing in new sensors, more capable computing infrastructure, and open-source algorithms following the ICON principles will enable new discoveries across the Earth sciences.
Nowadays, geology has a big “social” problem. Starting in the field of education where the science of geology is less well taught, so that society knows less about geology and its important role in daily life. For example, we can see on the news lots of people suffering because of natural phenomenon such as volcanic eruptions (e.g. Fuego in Guatemala, Kilauea in Hawaii), landslides or building collapses (e.g. Morandi Bridge in Genova, Italy), which could have been minimised or even prevented if society were better aware of the pivotal role that the geosciences can provide for such problems. However, we still cannot solve this problem, until we have not solved our “internal problems”. First of all, Geology has further to evolve, in the manner that Physics did from Classical Physics of Newton to Quantum Physics. Modern geology has only started using Plate Tectonics theory, but needs more time to evolve and find its “quantum theory”. Our science has been “distracted” by the rest of “earth sciences” which is less interested in pure geological research to improve learning. Consequently our community understands our science very well, but we have not been able to improve key factors, such as predictability or more precise modelling. The more we are specialised, the less we know about the other geological disciplines. If we want to contribute to this evolution, all disciplines must work together. As many say “the best geologists have seen the most rocks”. Secondly, geology is suffering from the subtle degradation of science education, allowing poor science to be accepted as true by the media. No-one wants to see the policing of science but it is a daily occurrence that emotional issues take precedence over data-driven facts. We have a role to ensure that our own scientific opinions are clear and not subject to the whims of fashionable though Once this has been solved, we should be able to transmit more effectively the key role of geosciences in daily life. An obvious start is transmitting geology to those that love the countryside such as artists, walkers, mountain climbers or landscapers, those who appreciate nature and already have wide perspectives on their environment. Geology can help to improve those qualities. If we also use our research to help the economic and social development of an area, we will have advanced our role in optimising the tasks. Combining geological knowledge with other disciplines of science, e.g. the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA), a good example of applying our expertise to enhance mutually beneficial solutions. During our cooperation, we had the opportunity to get to know about H2020, an EU Programme destined to improve scientific research and share knowledge between scientists. This project, as well as IMGA, are examples of structures in which geosciences are applicable in sustainable development. Attending Geoscience and Society Summit will allow us to explain in detail all these ideas.
In coral reef studies, mass spectrometry methods are widely applied to determine geochemical proxies in corals as a tool to evaluate seawater changes. As the coral grows, its skeleton forms annual bands similar to the growth rings found in trees. The density of the calcium carbonate skeletons changes as the water temperature, light, and nutrient conditions change. The elements stored within these bands can provide insight into the changing conditions of seawater over the entire lifetime of the coral, and serve as useful environmental records. Corals incorporate trace elements that can be precisely measured using high-resolution techniques, such as Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This analytical tool offers high levels of precision to determine the distribution of trace elements along the annual bands of coral skeletons. This approach can serve to monitor fixed-point time-series for water quality research, as well as large-scale observations in ocean science. Ultimately, this procedure can be applied to reconstruct past climate oscillation episodes and/or to quantify the impacts of marine pollution on coral reefs. The benefits of techno-scientific aspects of new and established mass spectrometry applications in coral reef research hold great promise that may continue to be improved in future studies. Given the current climate crisis, this issue requires accurate measurements to increase our understanding on the impacts that have become more frequent and intense.
It has become apparent in recent years that scientists need to find new ways to communicate and connect with the public to increase science literacy and trust of scientific results. To address these issues, the Time Scavengers website (timescavengers.blog) was created. This website is maintained and continuously added to by a team of collaborators including graduate students, post docs, museum staff, professors, avocational scientists, educators, and an editor. The website also includes static pages on the scientific method, geology, and climate science methods, as well as a number of resources for educators and others interested in science. The collaborators contribute regular blog posts on a variety of topics related to being a scientist, including the work we do in the field, learning new methods, and various aspects of our academic and career paths. One of our more popular blogs is called ‘Meet the Scientist’, which showcases diverse scientists in many different fields, from graduate students to experienced professional scientists, both U.S.-based and international. The website has reached almost 63,000 unique visitors in the two years since it was created, reaching folks speaking 155 languages in 196 countries. Using data from Google Analytics and social media accounts, including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, we examined some of the trends related to our broad international reach, to determine if any specific posts or types of posts attracted more international or non-English speaking visitors. Besides examining the general geographic reach over time, a few more specific comparisons were conducted. We examined whether or not Meet the Scientist posts featuring international scientists attracted more international visitors than those featuring U.S.-based scientists. We also analyzed data forField Excursions posts that described places people could visit to see if they attracted site visitors from those areas described in the post or had a broader national and international reach. Preliminary data indicate that posts about international scientists reach more countries, on average, than those featuring U.S. scientists, and geographic-specific posts reach a broad national and international audience.
The development of new phenomics approaches to image and process data from the subcellular to ecosystem-scale has accelerated over the past decade. Many of these tools are produced “in-house” within a single lab or a group of collaborating labs, making it hard to keep up with the state-of-the-art for phenomics hardware and software development. The Plant Cell Atlas Phenomics Committee is creating a collaborative space that connects phenomics developers with each other and with the greater plant science community, with the goal of facilitating wide-reaching collaborations. To do this, we will be hosting a video series called “How We Built It” where developers provide a short tour of their inventions and relevant biological applications. We will follow the series with a more in-depth networking event where plant scientists can connect with the inventors and discuss collaborative opportunities. Our goal is to streamline the invention of new phenotyping tools and broaden the application of existing tools.
Committees touch nearly every facet in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) research enterprise. However, the role of gatekeeping through committee work has received little attention in Earth and space sciences. We propose a novel concept called, “regenerative gatekeeping” to challenge institutional inertia, cultivate belonging, accessibility, justice, diversity, equity, and inclusion in committee work. Three examples, a hiring committee process, a seminar series innovation, and an awards committee, highlight the need to self-assess policies and practices, ask critical questions and engage in generative conflict. Rethinking committee work can activate distributed mechanisms needed to promote change.
Urbanization and climate change are exacerbating stress on aging urban critical infrastructure systems, including water, energy, mobility, and telecommunication networks. Simulation tools and scenario analyses able to capture the interdependencies among these different infrastructure systems are crucial to support decision making and realize sustainable and resilient development. Yet, existing simulation tools are mostly developed within the boundaries of individual application sectors and information often remains siloed, despite the increasing data and computational opportunities offered by the digital transformation of many infrastructure sectors. In this work, we present how the ide3a project (international alliance for digital e-learning, e-mobility and e-research in academia – https://ide3a.net) addresses this research gap. ide3a is building a digital campus to support digital learning, research, and mobility in collaboration within a network of six European partner universities. Several senior and early career researchers with multidisciplinary backgrounds in water management, IT systems, mobility, energy, urban planning, sustainability, and psychology, work together to integrate state-of-the-art research on critical infrastructure and digitalization into traditional higher education curricula. As part of the ide3a portfolio of digital tools for learning and research, we present a prototype of “ConnectiCity”, an open-source simulation-based serious game that integrates multi-sectoral models to perform simulations of interconnected critical infrastructure systems and quantify cascading effects under various climate, social, and technical scenarios. Along with other ide3a activities, it is used to train early career researchers and students alike to enrich their transdisciplinary knowledge, foster critical system thinking, drive research on urban critical infrastructure dynamics, and ultimately working across disciplines to tackle contemporary urban challenges.
Although gender parity has been reached at the graduate level in the geosciences, women remain a minority in top-level positions. First authorship of peer-reviewed scholarship is a measure of academic success and is often used to project potential in the hiring process. Given the importance of first author publications for hiring and advancement, we sought to quantify whether women are underrepresented as first authors relative to their representation in the field. We compiled first author names across 13 leading geoscience journals from January 2013 to April 2019 (n = 35,183). Using a database of 216,286 names from 79 countries, across 89 languages, we classified the likely gender associated with each author’s given (first) name. We also estimated the gender distribution of authors who publish using only initials, which may itself be a strategy employed by some women to preempt perceived (and actual) gender bias in the publication process. Female-author names represent 13-30% of all first authors in our database, and are significantly underrepresented relative to the proportion of women in early career positions (30-50%). The proportion of female-name first authors varies significantly by subfield, reflecting variation in representation of women across subdisciplines. In geoscience, the quantification of this first authorship gender gap supports the hypothesis that the publication process; namely, achievement or allocation of first authorship is biased by social factors, which may modulate career success of women in the sciences.
Learning progressions provide a sequence, or progression, of concepts from naive to sophisticated. Astrobiology educators and scientists have identified the need to develop learning progressions for core, interdisciplinary concepts in astrobiology to support both educators of K-12 students to bring astrobiology concepts into their classrooms, and scientists to communicate with a range of audiences. The Astrobiology Learning Progressions resource organizes core concepts around the essential questions of astrobiology, and includes connections to the Next Generation Science Standards, progressed storylines, and concept boundaries for four levels: primary or adult naïve learners, elementary or emerging adult learners, middle school or building learner, and high school or sophisticated learner. The resource also links lesson plans and other learning materials to each core concept.
The concept of “technosignatures” has been defined within the encompassing endeavor of searching for life beyond Earth as “evidence of some technology that modifies its environment in ways that are detectable”. This poster proposes the application of insights from the study of anticipation to the Search for Technosignatures, in order to proactively facilitate the development of this scientific field. Anticipation is the third level of Futures Studies that has been described as “a process through which the present is transformed, intervened in and ultimately governed in the name of the future”. This poster presents two ways in which the study of Anticipation in the Search for Technosignatures could be beneficial to its course.
Experts in the area of educational research have documented that students can simultaneously possess alternate knowledge frameworks. Furthermore, the development and use of such knowledge frameworks are context dependent. John Heron, of University of Surrey provides guidelines to transform attitudes towards learning in educational institutions and society at large. Inspired by John Heron’s Research, the author has generated DISCUSS to cultivate inspiration in the college experience. In this presentation, the author presents an analysis of the data he has collected and tries to draw conclusions as to how to improve classroom teaching techniques. Directional: By providing direct guidance and steering them in the appropriate direction. Informative: By giving instruction and documenting necessary knowledge and information. Supporting: By affirming the worth and value of student’s beliefs, actions and qualities. Catalytic: By motivating and encouraging them to learn and to move towards self-discovery. Uplifting: By enabling the student to ease tension and to react to powerful emotions. Steering: By means of creative feedback to challenging the student to rise to the occasion. Stimulating: By asking the student to develop interesting problem-solving methodologies. In this presentation, the author tries to present a model analysis. Here, he tries to apply qualitative research to establish and interpret a quantitative data representation. References Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic, 2000. Barr, R. B., & Tagg, J. (1995, November/December). From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education. Change: The Magazine of Higher Education, 13-24. Saxe, S. (1990, June). Peer influence and learning. Training and Development Journal, 42 (6), 50-53. Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Currency Doubleday. Sims, R. R. (1992, Fall). Developing the learning climate in public sector training programs. Public Personnel Management, 21 (3), 335-346.
This repository creates a GUI (graphical user interface) for the BALTO (Brokered Alignment of Long-Tail Observations) project. BALTO is funded by the NSF EarthCube program. The GUI aims to provide a simplified and customizable method for users to access data sets of interest on servers that support the OpenDAP data access protocol. This interactive GUI runs within a Jupyter notebook and uses the Python packages: ipywidgets (for widget controls), ipyleaflet (for interactive maps) and pydap (an OpenDAP client). The Python source code to create the GUI and to process events is in a module called balto_gui.py that must be found in the same directory as this Jupyter notebook. Python source code for visualization of downloaded data is given in a module called balto_plot.py. This GUI consists of mulitiple panels, and supports both a tab-style and an accordion-style, which allows you to switch between GUI panels without scrolling in the notebook. You can run the notebook in a browser window without installing anything on your computer, using something called Binder. Look for the Binder icon below and a link labeled “Launch Binder”. This sets up a server in the cloud that has all the required dependencies and lets you run the notebook on that server. (Sometimes this takes a while, however.) To run this Jupyter notebook without Binder, it is recommended to install Python 3.7 from an Anaconda distribution and to then create a conda environment called balto. Simple instructions for how to create a conda environment and install the software are given in Appendix 1 of version 2 (v2) of the notebook.
Inspired by the AAHE Assessment Forum’s Principles for good practice for assessing students’ learning, the author has generated Ten Steps (1992) to Promote a Stronger Emphasis on Student Learning in a Hydrology–Fluid Mechanics Course. Student-Learning must not be focused only about making the connections initially. Instead it should concentrate more about maintaining those connections in the long run. Student learning is fundamentally about a strong bond between the academic establishment and the student citizens of the entire community. Student-Learning is enhanced by the environment. It should take place in the context of a compelling situation that balances curiosity, challenge and opportunity. Student-Learning should have an active search for meaning by the learner – constructing knowledge rather than passively delivering it or receiving it. In other words one should create a Concept Mapping Model instead of a Structured Content Model. Student-Learning is developmental. In other words, it is a cumulative process involving the whole person, who is capable of integrating the new with the old. The settings, the surroundings, the influences of others contribute to successful accomplishments. Student-Learning should be viewed as an effort promoted by individuals who are intrinsically tied to others as social beings, actually interacting as collaborators. Student-Learning is strongly influenced by the educational climate in which learning achievements takes place. Student-Learning requires Action, Communication, Ownership, Reflection and Nurture (ACORN) as suggested by Hawkins and Winter (1997). Student-Learning in reality aims at an educational experience that takes place informally and incidentally, beyond explicit teaching in the lecture hall. Student-Learning is grounded in particular contexts and individual experiences, requiring effort to transfer specific knowledge and skills to other citizens. Student-Learning involves the ability of individuals not only to monitor their own learning, but also be able to enhance learning through collaboration and cooperation. References: Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise in higher education initiative. London: Department for Education and Employment.