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Numerical and observational study of Sn-to-Lg conversion due to crustal-thickening: implications for identification of continental mantle earthquakes
  • Shiqi Wang,
  • Simon L. Klemperer
Shiqi Wang
Stanford University

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Simon L. Klemperer
Stanford University
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We study Sn-to-Lg conversion at regional distances due to significant crustal thickening, particularly in the context of using Sn and Lg amplitude ratios (Sn/Lg) to identify continental mantle earthquakes. We further enhance recent developments in computational seismology to perform 2.5D simulations up to 5 Hz and 2,000 km. Our simulations compare propagation in a reference, constant-thickness crust from a source at three depths straddling the Moho, to 48 models of the same three sources propagating through Moho ramps of four different widths (dips) at four different distances from the source. We compare our synthetics to data from 12 earthquakes recorded on the HiCLIMB array across Tibet, of which six events from northwestern Tibet traverse no major crustal-thickness variation, and six located south of the Himalaya cross a major Moho ramp. Our observations on real data show that amplitude perturbations on individual Sn and Lg waves are smooth and mostly limited to near the ramp end. Even the more-pronounced amplitude variations seen in our simulations show that Sn/Lg for mid-crustal earthquakes is consistently lower than those for mantle earthquakes. Hence we can directly compare Sn/Lg for ramp-crossing and non-ramp-crossing earthquakes and identify new mantle earthquakes in northern India. Sn-to-Lg converted waves may be readily detected near the Moho ramp end through an enhancement in high-frequency content. In addition, we observe higher frequency content in Lg from crustal than from mantle earthquakes, which offers a new discriminant for continental mantle earthquakes based on frequency content of Lg waves alone.
16 Apr 2024Submitted to ESS Open Archive
19 Apr 2024Published in ESS Open Archive