Multi-site transfer function approach for real-time modeling of the
ground electric field induced by laterally-nonuniform ionospheric source
We propose a novel approach to model the ground electric field (GEF)
induced by laterally-nonuniform ionospheric sources in the real-time.
The approach exploits the multi-site transfer function concept,
continuous magnetic field measurements at multiple sites in the region
of interest, and spatial modes describing the ionospheric source. We
compared the modeled GEFs with those measured at two locations in
Fennoscandia and observed good agreement between modeled and measured
GEF. Besides, we compared GEF-based geomagnetically induced current
(GIC) with that measured at the
gas pipeline recording point and again observed remarkable agreement
between modeled and measured GIC.