Direct cooling of the atmosphere by heat transfer
AbstractGlobal warming is currently one of the greatest challenges to humanity. So far, the attempts to mitigate global warming have been based exclusively on the reduction of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. The main methods include reduction of CO2 emissions and the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, as in the case of carbon capture and storage. One of the problems with this approach is that the lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere is very long and the effect of the CO2 emission reduction on atmospheric temperature decrease will only become meaningful after a number of decades. In this work I am proposing to reduce the global atmospheric temperature increase, or even to decrease the temperature by removing sensible heat from the atmosphere and transferring it to media outside the atmosphere such as water or land mass. One of the main advantages of atmospheric heat removal is that unlike CO2 emission reduction, it has an immediate effect on atmospheric temperature. Also, the technology is simple, inexpensive and relatively well developed. Four different methods to achieve that are proposed: one by direct heat exchange between the atmosphere and cooling water, and the other three based on the process of isothermal gas compression and expansion. The latter three methods combine the cooling of the atmosphere with other practically important features: energy storage, energy transport and power generation. Proven patented technical solutions to achieve the atmospheric cooling are shown. The energy balance and the financial and materials requirements to build the needed equipment show that the complete stop of global warming is achievable in a period of several years. It should be noted that the proposed solution to global warming is temporary and will work only for several decades. In the longer term, CO2 emission decrease (which needs to start as soon as possible) should take over as the main method of global warming mitigation. INTRODUCTION The process of chemical fuel oxidation involves two significant types of emissions to the environment: mass (primarily carbon dioxide and water vapor) and energy (sensible heat and some electromagnetic energy in the infrared and visible spectrum) 1 .