Over the last two decades, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have evolved as an
effective biocompatible and biodegradable RNA delivery platform in the
field of nanomedicine, biotechnology and drug delivery, with the current
successes as COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Therefore, it is important to
provide a general workflow of studying RNA-based LNP performance, which
further offers useful guidance for researchers who want to work in the
RNA-based LNP field. In this perspective, we first summarized the
approaches for the preparation of LNPs, followed by the introduction of
the key characterization parameters. Then, the in vitro evaluation of
LNP performance including cell selection, cell viability, cellular
association/uptake, endosomal escape and their efficacy was summarized.
Finally, the in vivo assessment in the aspects of animal selection,
administration, dosing and safety, and their therapeutic efficacy was
discussed. We hope this perspective can offer valuable guidance to
researchers who enter the field of RNA-based LNPs and help them
understand the crucial parameters that RNA-based LNP demands.