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Bremsstrahlung Electron Crossing Different Mediums: Extension of Asymmetric Backward Peaking Radiation Pattern from a Relativistic Particle Accelerated by Lightning Leader Tip Electric Field
  • Mert Yucemoz
Mert Yucemoz
University of Bath

Corresponding Author:m.yucemoz@bath.ac.uk

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Previously the radiation patterns of combined parallel and perpendicular motions from the accelerated relativistic particle at low and high frequencies of the bremsstrahlung process with an external lightning electric field were explained. The primary outcome was that radiation patterns have four relative maxima with two forward peaking and two backward peaking lobes. The asymmetry of the radiation pattern, i.e., the different intensities of forwarding and backward peaking lobes, is caused by the Doppler effect. A novel outcome is that bremsstrahlung has an asymmetry of the four maxima around the velocity vector caused by the curvature of the particle’s trajectory as it emits radiation. Previously stated bremsstrahlung asymmetry, R was an asymmetry in the radiation lobe pairs about particles velocity vector. Bremsstrahlung asymmetry used to occur at the same level in both forward radiation lobe pairs and backward radiation lobe pairs. However, in high-density mediums where the emitted wave can lag behind the speed of the particle, symmetry of the magnitude of bremsstrahlung asymmetry, R differs between forward peaking radiation lobe pairs relative to backward peaking radiation lobe pairs. This is another novel asymmetry and it causes bremsstrahlung asymmetry, R to be larger in the forward peaking compared to backward peaking radiation. The outcome is the shrink in radiation length that occurs in the backward peaking lobes. This extended work reports, changes in the radiation pattern as the emitted wave propagates through different mediums. Two novel formulas are derived from Snell’s law for a particle entering the medium horizontally and from any other angle between \Pi/2 and -\Pi/2 radians. The novel outcome is the change in angle between forward peaking radiation lobe pair and backward peaking radiation lobe pair defined as bremsstrahlung angle, \theta_{brem}. When the bremsstrahlung particle crosses different mediums, change in angle between the forward and backward radiation lobe pairs, bremsstrahlung angle, \theta_{brem} breaks into its components as each lobe changes angle at different magnitudes from the particle’s velocity vector. Therefore, bremsstrahlung angle, \theta_{brem} between forward-backward peaking lobes transforms into individual angles \Omega_{1}, \Omega_{2}, \Omega_{3}. \Omega_{4} all measuring from the particle’s velocity vector.