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Ocean Sciences Perspectives on Integrated, Coordinated, Open, Networked (ICON) Science
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  • Jasmin Graham,
  • Angelos Hannides,
  • Nabir Mamnun,
  • Lina Elisabet Sitz,
  • Ian D. Walsh,
  • Elisha M. Wood-Charlson,
  • Leandro Ponsoni
Jasmin Graham
Minorities in Shark Sciences
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Angelos Hannides
Coastal Carolina University
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Nabir Mamnun
Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research
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Lina Elisabet Sitz
The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics
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Ian D. Walsh
Independent Researcher
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Elisha M. Wood-Charlson
Environmental Genomics and Systems Biology Division, E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
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Leandro Ponsoni
Danish Meteorological Institute

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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This article is composed of three independent commentaries of how Integrated, Coordinated, Open, and Networked (ICON), as well as Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR; under the umbrella of I from ICON), principles are currently embedded in ocean sciences, and what are the opportunities and challenges by adopting them. Each commentary focuses on a different perspective as follows: (i) field sampling and experimentation to remote-sensing and autonomous observations (Section 1); (ii) global collaboration, technology transfer and application, reproducibility, and data sharing and infrastructure (Section 2); (iii) increasing diversity and broadening participation in ocean sciences (Section 3). Overall, there is a consensus that ocean sciences is well-advanced in adopting many of the ICON-FAIR principles regarding (i) and (ii), although there are still plenty of opportunities to develop further by, for instance, making broader use of data-of-opportunity and citizen science, improving efforts towards standardized data organization and avoiding data fragmentation, and increasing training activities to implement good practices. On the other hand, fostering diversity and broadening participation in ocean sciences is still in its infancy. Actions are needed to overcome under-representation of women and other marginalized groups, create opportunities for early-career scientists, and build bridges to support scientists from low-income countries. We recognize that adopting ICON-FAIR principles come with high costs and efforts, but it has strong potential to develop ocean sciences in many aspects.