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Flow aware parameterizations invigorate the simulated ocean circulation under the Pine Island ice shelf, West Antarctica
  • Timothy A Smith
Timothy A Smith
Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Warm, subsurface ocean waters that access ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea are likely to be a key driver of high meltrates and ice shelf thinning. Numerical models of the ocean circulation have been essential for gaining understanding of the mechanisms responsible for heat delivery and meltrate response, but a number of challenges remain for simulations that incorporate this region. Here, we develop a suite of numerical experiments to explore how sub ice shelf cavity circulation and meltrate patterns are impacted by parameterization schemes for (1) subgrid-scale ocean turbulence, and (2) ice-ocean interactions. To provide a realistic context, our experiments are developed to simulate the ocean circulation underneath the Pine Island ice shelf, and validated against mooring observations and satellite derived meltrate estimates. Each experiment is forced with data-informed open boundary conditions that bear the imprint of the gyre in Pine Island Bay. We find that even at a ~600 m grid resolution, flow aware ocean parameterizations for subgrid-scale momentum and tracer transfer are crucial for representing the circulation and meltrate pattern accurately. Our simulations show that enhanced meltwater diffusion near the ice-ocean interface intensifies near wall velocities via thermal wind, which subsequently increases meltrates near the grounding line. Incorporating a velocity dependent ice-ocean transfer coefficient together with a flow aware ocean turbulence parameterization therefore seems to be necessary for modelling the ocean circulation underneath ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea at this resolution.