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Desalination; a comprehensive and practical assessment on challenges and opportunities ahead
  • Babak Akram
Babak Akram
University of Birmingham

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Water scarcity becomes more severe and there will need to be a concerted effort to ensure that water supply remains secure. To mitigate the danger of water scarcity using an energy efficient method for water desalination is crucial. This review objectively compares the most practical thermal and reverse osmosis desalination technologies and the latest energy recovery opportunities for each process. This analysis reveals that thermal and reverse osmosis desalination should not be considered as a competitor since (mostly) the feed water quality and the final permeate water standards are the main parameters that impose choosing either of the most appropriate desalination method or hybridization of both approaches. Desalination of seawater using improved thermal desalination in which pre-heated helium gas instead of air is used to increase evaporation efficiency up to 3 times, is a promising technique that could make this sub-boiling thermal desalination approach the future of thermal desalination. The effect of Renewable energy resources, BCE, multiple stage units and optimizing liquid height in the dehumidifier were particularly evaluated in the HDH process which could perfectly handle the sub-boiling thermal desalination approach. Results of this comprehensive review can aid decision-makers by manifesting the main developments in desalination techniques to a reasonable degree of accuracy.