Ionospheric Echo Detection in Digital Ionograms Using Convolutional
AbstractAn ionogram is a graph that shows the distance that a vertically
transmitted wave, of a given frequency, travels before returning to the
earth. The ionogram is shaped by making a trace of this distance, which
is called virtual height, against the frequency of the transmitted wave.
Along with the echoes of the ionosphere, ionograms usually contain a
large amount of noise and interference of different nature that must be
removed in order to extract useful information. In the present work, we
propose to use a convolutional neural network model to extract
ionospheric layers profiles, improving the quality of the information
obtained from digital ionograms, compared to that using image processing
and machine learning techniques in the generation of electronic density
profiles. A data set of more than 900,000 ionograms from 5 ionospheric
observation stations is available to use.