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General Solution for Tidal Behavior in Confined and Semiconfined Aquifers Considering Skin and Wellbore Storage Effects
  • Xuhua Gao,
  • Kozo Sato,
  • Roland Nicholas Horne
Xuhua Gao
Stanford University

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Kozo Sato
University of Tokyo
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Roland Nicholas Horne
Stanford University
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Tidal analysis provides a cost-effective way of estimating aquifer properties. Tidal response models that link aquifer properties with tidal signal characteristics, such as phase and amplitude, have been established in previous studies, but none of the previous models incorporate the skin effect. It is found in this study that the skin effect and the wellbore storage effect can have significant influence on the results of tidal analysis and should be included in tidal response models. New models are proposed with skin and wellbore storage effects fully incorporated, so that aquifer information can be assessed more accurately based on tidal analysis. The models can be applied to confined aquifers with only horizontal flow or semiconfined aquifers with both horizontal flow and vertical flow. For confined aquifers, the new model indicates that positive skin leads to larger phase lag between the tidal response the the theoretical tide, and negative skin can reduce the phase lag or even cause a phase advance. For semiconfined aquifers, both the skin effect and the vertical flow affect the phase difference between the tidal response and the theoretical tide, and with the proposed model, contribution from these two sources can be separated and analyzed independently, making it feasible to evaluate semiconfined aquifer properties considering both factors. Increasing wellbore storage causes larger phase lag or smaller phase advance for both types of aquifers. Real-world examples for confined and semiconfined aquifers are analyzed respectively to demonstrate practical applications of the proposed models.
Jun 2020Published in Water Resources Research volume 56 issue 6. 10.1029/2020WR027195